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biopsych module 12: neurological disorders
Terms in this set (95)
What are the two main causes of brain shrinkage seen in AD?
1. beta amyloid plaques
2. neurofibrillary tangles
True or False:
Individuals with AD first forget old memories, then progressively lose ability to encode new memories.
false- lose new memories first
What is a seizure? Also, what is one type of generalized seizure? What kinds of symptoms occur?
a seizure is an uncontrollable excitation of neurons in the brain. one type of generalized seizure is an absence seizure that begins suddenly and is over quickly. In a petit mal seziure, there is a temporary loss of consciousness.
What is a stroke? What are the two main types of strokes?
a stroke is when brain tissue is not receiving flow of oxygen. the two main types of strokes are ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes
What happens when axons are severed in concussions? What is this called?
when axons are severed in concussions, charged particles, tau proteins and neurotransmitters are released. this is called a diffuse axonal in
Why are adolescents at risk for brain injuries?
adolescents are at risk because their frontal cortex is being developed.
A debilitating loss in cognitive function due to a neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer's.
A neurodegenerative disease most associated with old age that affects short-term and long-term memory and eventually leads to death.
what is the leading cause of dementia?
__ is the 6th leading cause of death
____ is likely to increase as the world's population gets older
which parts of the brain start to degenerate in alzheimer's
cortex and limbic system
alzheimer's involves extreme shrinkage of ___ and ___
cerebral cortex and hippocampus
alzheimer's involves severely enlarged ___
The natural decline in movement, senses, and memory that occurs with age.
what are the two major causes of shrinkage of the cortex and hippocampus
beta amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles
An extracellular clumping of proteins that build up in people with Alzheimer's disease causing cell deaths.
Tangles created by clumps of tau proteins inside neurons causing neuron, death in people with Alzheimer's disease.
Proteins involved in cell growth that are cut improperly by enzymes in people with Alzheimer's disease creating plaque
amyloid precursor proteins
In Alzheimer's disease, specific enzymes cut APP into fragments called _____ that begin to clump together into plaques
Emerging evidence that an immune response from the ______ (in response to the presence of plaques, killing neurons
neurofibrillary tangles are ___ of the neuron
Proteins that stabilize microtubules in neurons. They do not function properly in people with Alzheimer's disease, creating neurofibrillary tangles and cell death.
what happens without the microtubule exoskeleton?
a neuron dies
Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease
Forgetting, disorientation, personality change, depression, motor problems, delusions, speech problems, infections
When does Alzheimer's usually begin?
around age 60
Causes of Alzheimer's Disease
- immune responses initiated by microglia
- viruses may contribute to onset of symptoms
A recessive allele that increases the likelihood of getting Alzheimer's disease.
other genes on the ___ chromosome may contribute to alzheimer's, particularly in people with down syndrome
what can you do to prevent alzheimer's
Low blood pressure
Exercise decreases beta-amyloid plaque
Good social network
Being cognitively challenged
An uncontrollable excitation of neurons leading to uncontrollable muscle contractions.
what do seizures cause
muscle contraction, confusion, loss of consciousness
what are some possible causes of seizures?
people who have several unprovoked seizures are diagnosed with _____
A disease where a person has repeated seizures.
Two types of seizures
partial and generalized
A seizure that starts at a specific location in the brain.
A seizure that does not have a focal point of origin.
type of seizure that causes behavioral or psychological changes associated with the area of the brain involved
E.g. if originates in the motor cortex, a person might feel tingling or twitching in their leg
simple partial seizure
A seizure that typically starts in the temporal lobe and causes dizziness or loss of consciousness.
complex partial seizure
A type of generalized seizure that begins and ends quickly.
A severe seizure that can last for an extended period causing muscle contractions and loss of consciousness and can be very dangerous.
what is the most extreme type of seizure?
what happens in the tonic phase
stiffness, loss of consciousness, heavy muscle contraction
what happens in the clonic phase
muscles start to spasm and jerk violently
causes of epilepsy
Excessive excitation (or imbalance of excitation and inhibition)
GABA (inhibitory) linked to seizures
____ and ____ to a person that a seizure is about to come
Auras and signals
Drugs that reduce the severity or frequency of seizures.
____ are Also known as anticonvulsants
Some antiepileptic drugs are GABA _____, like such as benzodiazepines
Others are glutamate ______
A group of cells that begin growing uncontrollably.
tumors are most often caused by ___ cells
types of glial cells that cause tumors
astrocytes and oligodendricytes
A slow-growing tumor with a clear border.
A fast-growing tumor without a clear border. They invade neighboring tissue and are typically very dangerou
a ___ tumor can be damaging if it takes up space
When blood flow is unable to get to brain tissue causing neuron death.
most common type of stroke
A stroke where a blood vessel is blocked.
What are ischemic strokes caused by?
the buildup of fatty deposits and cholesterols (plaque) that narrow or close blood vessels
a blockage caused by buildup of plaque
A blockage of blood vessels caused by tissue, air or a foreign substance.
A stroke caused by blood vessels leaking or bursting.
what causes a hemorragic stroke?
high blood pressure
symptoms of strokes
Loss of balance or coordination
weakness/loss of movement on contralateral side of brain
two basic types of injuries to the brain
open head and closed head
A head injury where the skull is fractured or broken.
open head injury
A head injury where the skull is not fractured or broken, but damage to the brain still occurs.
closed head injury
which type of head injury:
The brain moves around in the skull.
Breaks blood vessels (subdural hematoma)
closed head injury
A famous case study in neurology. In the 1800s, a railroad worker, had a large metal spike go through the frontal lobe.
A closed-head injury that causes bleeding between the cortex and dura mater.
A type of mild traumatic brain injury that temporarily affects the brain. It is caused by striking or shaking the head. This can lead to dizziness, headaches, nausea, and confusion.
_____ Can cause bleeding, bruising of the cortex, and stretching of nerve fibers
symptoms of concussion
dizziness, confusion, temporary amnesia, nausea, vision problems, and headaches
A brain injury where the brain bounces back and forth in the skull. This is caused by a blow to the head and results in an injury to the brain at the location of the blow as well as the area of the brain on the opposite side of the blow.
Damage to long axon tracts in the brain such as the corpus callosum during a concussion. The brain twists and bends stretching the axon fibers, causing them to break.
diffuse axonal injury
what does a diffuse axonal injury cause?
the release of charged particles, tau proteins, and neurotransmitters
Chemicals that cause an overactivation of neurons that can lead to neuron death. When axons are torn in a concussion, they can spill excitatory neurotransmitters like glutamate that can overexcite neurons.
Symptoms of a concussion that last for an extended period. Symptoms could be caused by damage to the pituitary gland
post-concussion syndrome (pcs)
brain injuries like concussions that are typically caused by closed-head injuries. A person with a mTBI would not lose consciousness or would be dizzy for less than thirty minutes.
mild traumatic brain injury
when is a traumatic brain injury considered mild?
if a person loses consciousness or is dizzy for less than thirty minutes
symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury
memory problems, headaches, visual disturbances, poor attention, and even seizures
Symptoms of mTBI can last for up to____ in ~15% of mTBI injuries
More severe mild traumatic brain injury. TBIs can be closed- and open-head injuries.
traumatic brain injury
most common causes of traumatic brain injury
traffic accidents, falls from bikes, and domestic violence; sports injuries and military exposure
30% of deaths by injuries in the U.S. are because of ____
The degenerative neurological disease associated with repeated brain injury, often associated with sports. It is diagnosed post mortem and shows high levels of tau protein buildup.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)
CTE causes problems with....
memory, emotional regulation, and motor movements
CTEs are caused by _____
repeated head injury
what are sports that CTE is associated with
football, boxing, hockey, rugby, soccer, and cheerleading
____ is most commonly diagnosed post mortem
Postmortem brains have loss of tissue and build up of ___ proteins (similar to Alzheimer's disease)
Concussions are more frequent and the symptoms harsher in ____ than ____
women than men
Sports and other recreational activities contribute to about ____ of TBI
which youth sports are the biggest contributors to brain injury
football, wrestling, girls' soccer, boys' soccer, and girls' basketball
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