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Chapter 22, 23, 24, 26

45 mm of Hg

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the interstitial space of peripheral tissues is approximately:


The airway between the larynx and the primary bronchi is the:


The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the:


The cartilage that makes up most of the anterior and lateral surface of the larynx is the _______ cartilage.

carbon dioxide

The most important chemical regulator of respiration is:

bicarbonate ions

Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as

inspiratory reserve volume

________ is the amount of air that you can take in over and above the tidal volume.


The cartilage that serves as a base for the larynx is the _______ cartilage.

in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture

Dalton's law states that:

simple squamous epithelium

The respiratory membrane consists primarily of:

external nares

The openings to the nostrils are the:

internal intercostal

Expiratory movements are produced by contraction of the ________ muscle(s).


The term ________ describes the result from an injury to the chest wall that causes air to leak into the pleural cavity.

the volume of the thorax increases

When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract:

inversely proportional to pressure

Boyle's law states that gas volume is:

the volume of the lungs decreases with expiration

Air moves OUT of the lungs because

3 lobes; 2 lobes

The right lung is to ________ as the left lung is to ________.

bound to hemoglobin

Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is:

lobes of the lungs

Secondary bronchi supply air to the:

upper respiratory tract

Air entering the body is filtered, warmed and humidified by the:

100 mm of Hg

The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood is approximately:


The elastic cartilage that shields the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the ________ cartilage.


The openings to the auditory tubes (Eustacian Tubes) are located in the:

hypoxia; anoxia

Decreased oxygen is to ________ as zero (0) oxygen is to _______.


Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?


Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract from one point to another are called:


The middle portion of the small intestine is the:

digestion of cholesterol fats

The functions of the oral cavity, include all of the following, EXCEPT:

a network of neurons

The myenteric plexus is:

increase the surface area of the mucosa of the small intestine

Plicae circulares and intestinal villi:

common bile duct

Fusion of the hepatic duct and the cystic duct forms the:

hydrochloric acid

Parietal cells secrete:

transverse colon

At the hepatic flexure, the colon becomes the:


Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract, EXCEPT the:


The saclike structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the:


The human liver is composed of ________ lobes.

carry products of digestion that will not pass through the walls of blood capillaries


a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera

The greater omentum is:


The curved, tubular portioon of the J-shaped stomach is the:

antibody production

Each of the following is a function of the liver, EXCEPT:


A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following, EXCEPT the:

gall bladder

Bile is stored and concentrated in the:

absorption of dipeptides

Functions of the stomach include all of the following, EXCEPT:

common bile duct and pancreatic duct

The duodenal ampulla (Ampulla of Vater) is formed by the fusion of the:


Chief cells secrete:


Immunoglobulins that are a single molecule and are mainly responsible for resistance against viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are:

specific immunity

Defense of the body against a particular bacteria or virus is provided by:

promotes an increased susceptibility to immune system failure

All of the following are true of the secondary or anamnestic response of humoral immunity, EXCEPT THAT IT:

neutrophils invade the surrounding areas, releasing chemotaxic substances

During a primary humoral response to antigens all of the following occur, EXCEPT:

helper T cells

B cells are primarily activated by the activities of:


The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the:

activates B cells

All of the following are true of the thymus gland, EXCEPT that it:

the thyroid gland

The lymphatic system is composed of all of the following, EXCEPT:

cytotoxic T

Lymphocytes that attack foreign cells or body cells infected with viruses are ________ cells.


The largerst collection of lymphatic tissue in the adult body is located in the:


All of the various macrophages are derived from:


Immunity that results from the natural exposure to an immunogen in the environment is called ________ immunity.


Immunoglobulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions are:

helper T

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively infects _______ cells.

depress the responses of other T cells and B cells

Suppressor T cells act to:


The only antibodies that normally cross the placenta are:


Immunoglobulins that are composed of five single molecules joined together, and are the first andtibodies to be produced in response to infection, are:

constant (fixed) regions

The various classes of immunoglobulins are differentiated on the basis of their:

thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived

T is to ________ as B is to ________.

urine with a lower specific gravity

In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce:


Each of the following systems of the body is involved in the process of excretion to some degree, EXCEPT the ________ system.


Drugs that promote fluid loss in urine are known as:

distal convoluted tubule

The portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct is the:

large proteins

Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, EXCEPT:

secretes excess glucose molecules

The urinary system does all of the following, EXCEPT that it:

a knot of capillaries that lies within the renal corpuscle (Bowman's capsule)

A glomerulus is:

less urine is produce

When the level of ADH increases:


Substances larger than ________ are normally NOT allowed to pass through the filtration membrane:

bundles of tissue that lie between pyramids and extend from the renal cortex toward the renal sinus

Renal columns are:

4, 3, 2, 6, 1, 5, 7, 8

The following is a list of the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidney:
1. afferent arteriole
2. arcuate artery
3. interlobar arter
4. renal artery
5. glomerulus
6. interlobular artery
7. efferent arteriole
8. peritubular capillary


Each of the following is a characteristic of a normal urine sample, EXCEPT:

renal cortex

The outermost layer of the kidney tissue is the:


Conical structures that are located in the renal medulla are called:

Bowman's capsule

The process of filtration occurs at:

approximately 50 percent of the waste products

The cells of the proximal convoluted tubule normally reabsorb all of the following, EXCEPT:

absorption of ions, organic molecules, vitamins, and water

The primary fuction of the proximal convoluted tubule is:

blood hydrostatic pressure

The process of filtration is driven by:


The ureters and urinary bladder are lined by ________ epithelium.

proximal convoluted tubule

The portion of the nephron closest to the renal corpuscle is the:


The prominent indentation of the medial surface of the kidney is the:

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