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Three approaches to Planned Changed

1. Program
2. Policy
3. Project

Walker in Sense and Nonsense states:

Before you approach to solve a problem, you must understand the problem first.

Walker also argues that:

Waging war on crime is the wrong way to fight crime. It will not deter people fropm engagaing in criminal activities

Walker believes that:

Crime control proposals are nonsenes

Walker's Assessment

1.Liberals and conservatives are guilty of peddling nonsense and crime.
2. Crime control rest on faith rather facts.
3. crime control ides are based on false assumption about how the criminal justice system works.

Factors in the Legistalive process: what influence the process or polices

1.Media and Public Opinion
2. Race and Class factors
3. Economy- Free Market
4. Budget
5. Party Politics
6.Ideological/Theological Perspectives
7. Players and the decision makers in the Lobbying Process

Welsh and Harris 7 stages in Policy Anaylsis

1. Identify and Analyze problems of new and exisiting interventions.
2.Setting goals and objectives
3.Program or Policy Design.
4. Planning Action.
5. Implementing Program or Policy
6. Evaluation of Program and Policy.
7. Reassess and Review

1. Identify and Anaylze the Problem:

1.History of the problem,
2.causes of the problem,
3.prior intervention,
4.stake holders,
5. barriers to change and support
6. Conduct a system analysis

2. Setting Goals and Objectives

1.Write goal statement
2.Write outcomes for each goal
3.Seek participation in goal setting.

3. Program or Policy Design

1. Define target population.
2. Target selection: How are you going to select your sample.
3. Define Program component: What will the program or policy look like.
4. What activities will be included.
5. Write job descriptions of staff
6. What skills are training is needed.

4. Action Planning

1. Identify resources needed
2. Plan to acquire or reallocate resources
3. Time frame to coplet implementations task.
4. Develope mechanism of self- regulation.
5. Plan to build support.

5. Program or Poicy Implementation

1. How are you going to monitor and collect data.
2. Design instrument to collet data and monitor program or policy.
3. Who will be responsible to collect ,store ,and analyze the data.
4. Develop information system capacities.
5. Boot Camp

6. Evaluation OutComes

1. Did Policy or Program meet goals and objectives.
2. What research Design will be used.
3. Who will evaluate and use te results?
4. Reassess ploicy and program plan.

7. Reassessment and Review

1. Planning for Failure.
2. Don't exaggerate claims
3. Cotinue with revision and reasseement regurly.
4. reassess theentire program /policy plan and make necessary changes to increase fit with environment


1. Crime is seen through images viewed through the media.
2. Through the night and local news.

When addressing Policy or Program, these factors must be included.

1. People social status
2. Social economics
3. Urban Context-inner cities
4. Age
5. Education
6. Race

Liberal will look at the Social aspect of causes of criminal behaviors

2. Family dynamics
3. Education or the lack of.
4. Unemployment
5. Drugs infested neighborhoods

Theories that can be used from a Liberal perspective

1. Strain and Anomie Theory(Merton)
2. Social Learning Theories(Akers).
3. Differential Association Learning(Sutherland)
4. Social Bond Theory(Hirshi)

Liberals are kown as

1. Bleeding hearts
2. Looks to writing legislations that will enhance social policy or programs to assist those with criminal behaviors..
3. Drug Treatment Programs
4. Alternative Policy and Programs instead of incarceration .
5. Big government

Conserative Ideological or Perspectives

1. Believes that if you commit a crime then you should do the time.
2. Lock Em Up
3. Three Strike and Your Out law no matter if no homicide was committed or it was a petty crime.

Theories that can be used from a Conservative Perspective

1. Rational Choice Theory. Individual choose to engage in deviant behaviors then they should be punished.
2. Individuals can rationalized their behavior.
3. Small government
4. Deterrence, swifty , harsh and certainity of punishment will deter others from committing crime.
Routine Activity Theory, as long as a movitated criminal see an potential victim who has no one watching out for them, then a crime wil be committed.

Media and Public Opinion that influence Policy

1. The images flashed across local and Nightly News regarding crime influence the way people feel about crime and what should be done.
2. Criminal images enhance people fears and prejudices against minorities especially African American.
3. Creates an urgency that legislation needs to be put in place to address crime, or whatever the issue is such as Gun Control, and War on Drugs.

Race and Class Factors

1. Influence Policy and Programs.
2. Is taken into account when Legislators look to make policies especially legislation geared towards crime.

Economy- Free market

1. Capital Society
2. Budget
3. How much is it going to cost.
4. Re- Authorization

Party Politics

1. What am I trying to do or get for my party.

Dynamics of Criminal Justice

1. Media
2. Personalized legislation
3. Ideology


1. Crime as a Surrogate Social Problem.
2. Ideology

War Models

1. Unintended Effects

Cycles of Social Control and Crime Policy

1. Seeking Balance
2. Race and Exculsion

Punitive Approach

1. A policy which calls for punishing persons who ignore the law partake in the revelant.
2. Serves as a design to impose punishment

How the Media Treatment o fCrime Affects Public Opinion and Crimnal Justice Policy

1. National Survey reported ,81% of respondents said that they have based their view of how bad the crime problem is on what they have read or seen in the news.
2. American Bar Association Poll Survey results indicate that,41% of respondents identified television news fro their source of infromation o he criminal justice system.
3. 37% states primetime newsmagazines, and 36% identified local newspaper for information about criminal news.

Media Influence

Newsweek aricle found that changes in the media's framing of the race issue brought about subtle shifts in racial policy preferences

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