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91 terms

Anatomy final

so i just put the question and typed out the correct answer
1. what is not a type of neuroglial cell
(d) nissil cell
2. in the central nervous system myelin is formed by
3. the cytoplasmic extensions that provide the main receptive surfaces for neurons are
4. masses of myelinated nerve fibers appear
5. when a nerve fiber is polarized the concentration of
(d)sodium is higher on the outside of the membrane and potassium ions is higher on the inside
6. during an action potential, repolarization occurs as a result of
(a)potassium ions diffusing to the outside of the cell membranes
7. when a neuron becomes more excitable as a result of incomming subthreshold stimulation, it is said to be
8. which of the following lists the parts of a reflex in the correct sequence?
(d)receptor sensory neurons interneuron motor neuron effector
9. within the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid occupies the
(d)subarachnoid space
10. the spinothalamic tract conducts impulses
(b)up the spinal to the thalamus
11. the part of the brain that functions to coordinate voluntary muscle movements is the
12. which of the following is most closely associated with the diencephalon
13. the complex network of tiny islands of gray matter within the brain that activates the cerebral cortex to a state of wakefulness is the
(c)limbic system
14. the two types of cells of the nervous system are
(b)neurons and neuroglial
15. the space between neurons is a
16. the nervous system
(e)all of the above
17. neurons that convey impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands are
(a) effectors
18. sensory receptors
(e) all of the above
19. three general functions of the nervous system are
(b) integrative .......
20. a neuron may have
(a) one axon and many dendrites
21. _________ support the axon from within
(c) Neurofibrils
22. every neuron has
(b) a cell body
23. which of the following is unique to neurons?
(b) chromatophilic substance
24. myelin
(b) comprises much of the cell membrane of schwan cells
25. a myelinated nerve fiber is ________ whereas an unmyelinated nerve fiber is _________
(c). white, and composing the white matter of the brain and spinal cord; gray, and composing of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord
26. which cells produce myelin in the brain and spinal cord?
(d) oligodendrocytes
27. a reason that the CNS ans PNS differ in their ability to regenerate after injury is that
(a) axons of the CNS lack myelin
28. Most of the neurons in the brain and spinal cord
(c) multipolar
29. in order for a severed peripheral nerve to regenerate and recover its original function, nerve fibers must sprout and enter tubes formed by
( c) myelin
30. clusters of neuron cell bodies are called
(c) ganglia
31. synaptic knobs are at the ends of
(a ) axons
32. presynaptic neurons release neurotansmitters by
(d) active transport
33. when an action potential passes over the surface of a synaptic knob, the contents of the vescicles are released in responce to the presence of
(b) sodium ions
34. a stimulus great enough to change the membrane potential and propagate an action potential is said to have reached
(e) threshold
35. when a nerve fiber is polarized the concentration of
(d) NA+ is higher on the outside of the membrane and K+ is higher on the inside
36.saltatory conduction
(c) is faster than conduction on an unmyelinated fiber
37. the most rapid nerve impulses are conducted on fibers that are
(A) thick and myelinated
38. which of the following ions cross cell membranes most readily
(a) potassium
39. what is the correct sequence of events that follows a threshold potential
(b) 2,1,4,3
40. each neuron in the CNS receives input from
(b) one synaptic knob at each end
41. the neurotransmitter that controls skeletal muscle contraction is
(c) acetylcholine
42. in reuptake
(c) neurotransmitters that has already been released into the synaptic cleft is taken back into the synaptic knob of the presubnaptic neuron or nearby neuroglia or neurons
43. convergence refers to
(b) axons from nuerons in different parts of the nervous system contacting the same neuron
44. diverging axons amplify an impulse by contacting many neurons
(a) contacting many neurons
45. the neurotransmitter most likely produced when a person uses a drug that creates a sense of well-being is
(b) dopamine
46. the CNS consists of
(b) the brain and spinal cord
47. the epidural space contains
(a) loose connective tissue, blood vessels, and adipose tissue
48. the meninges consist of
(c) the pis matter, arachoid matter and dura matter
49. most cerebrospinal fluid is secreted from the choroid plexuses in the
(e) lateral ventricles
50. the fourth ventricle is in the
(b) brainstem
51. cerebrospinal fluid
(e) all of the above
52. cerebrospinal fluid is produced by _______ and it ________
(a) dura matter; maintains a stable ionic concentration in the CNS
53. reflexes help to control
(e) all of the above
54. gray matter of the spinal cord is mostly composed of
(b) cerebrospinal fluid
55. the spinal cord has
(e) all of the above
56. all reflexes have
(b) a reflex arc
57. the simplest level of CNS function is the
(b) patellar reflex
58. the part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscular movements is the
(a) cerebrum
59. which of the following is a major portion of the diencephalon
(a) thalamus
60. if the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to Broca's area is damages
(d) motor control of the muscles associated with speech is lost
61. the function of the cerebral association area is
(e) all of the above
62. which lobe of your brain are you using when answering this question
(b) parietal
63. the _____ separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum
(d) transverse fissure
64. if the general interpretative area of the dominate hemisphere is damaged in a child the
(d) child will have difficulty concentrating
65. which of the following terms and definitions is correct
(a) cerebral cortex a thin layer of gray matter forming the outermost part of the cerebrum
66. the consequence of sensory nerve fibers crossing over is that the
(b) right hemisphere of the cerebrum
67. basal ganglia are located in the _______ and _____
(d) cerebral hemisphere; aid in coordination of equilibrium motor activities
68. the somatic nervous system consists of nerve fibers that connect the CNS to the _____, where as the autonomic nervous system consists of fibers that connect the _______
(d) skin and skeletal muscles; CNS to the visceral organs
69. receptors for the general senses are sound
(c) widely distributed throughout the body
70. soecial senses arise from receptors located
(a) primarily in the head
71. the brain interprets input from sensory receptors as
(B) sensation
72. max returns to his dorm room late at night to find his roommate throwing up ..................... the odor seems to fade. Max has experienced
(b) sensory adaptation
73. olfactory receptors, which provide the sense of smell are
(c) chemoreceptors
74. which of the following are paired correctly?
(e) all of the above
75. pain receptors differ from other somatic receptors by
(b) adapting very little, if at all
76. pain receptors
(a) respond to factors that can damage tissue
77. which of the following is not a primary taste sensation?
(c) pungent
78.the taste receptor that amino acids such as glutamate activate is
(d) umami
79. movement of hair cells in the semicircular canal signals
(b) the direction of motion
80. referred pain occurs when the brain projects the sensations back to the original source in the body from which the pain originated
81. tears contain an enzyme that reduces the risk of eye infections
82. the auditory ossicles are in the inner ear
83. a hormone is a _______ and the target cell is _______
(c) molecule that has a metabolic effect on another cell; a cell that has receptors for specific hormones
84. secretion that affect only nearby cells are termed
(d) autocrine
85. exocrine glands differ from endocrine glands in that exocrine glands
(c) secrete through ducts or tubes to the body's exterior
86. a sweat gland is an example of a _____ gland
(a) exocrine
87. hormones
(e) all of the above
88. the specificity of hormone action derives from
(a ) target cell receptors that are unique fro the hormone type
89. compared to the nervous system the endocrine system
(b) may have longer lasting effects
steroid hormone
(E) all of the above
nonsteroid hormones cause _______ in their target cells
(c) activation of adenylate cyclase