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Sociology of Aging
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 18
Terms in this set (51)
According to Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, which five basic personality traits remain stable across adulthood?
what is ego-integrity-versus despair stage?
Erikson's final stage of life, characterized by a process of looking back over one's life, evaluating it, and coming to terms with it
when do people in late adulthood feel integrity?
when people feel they have realized and fulfilled the possibilities that have come their way in life, and they have few regrets
when do people in late adulthood feel despair?
when people feel dissatisfied with their life, and experience gloom, unhappiness, depression, anger, or feel that they have failed
what are peck's three developmental tasks?
1. redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work role
2. body transcendence versus body preoccupation
3. ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation
what is redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work role?
The theory that those in old age must redefine themselves in ways that do not relate to their work roles or occupation
what is body transcendence versus body preoccupation?
a period in which people must learn to cope with and move beyond changes in physical capabilities as a result of aging
what is ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation?
the period in which elderly people must come to grips with their coming death
why do people struggle with being "old"?
negative stereotypes, and they may struggle with the loss of power, respect, and authority
what is a disintegrated and disorganized personality?
people that are unable to accept aging and experience despair as they get older, often ending up in nursing homes or hospitalized
what are passive-dependent personalities?
people that lead lives filled with fear of falling ill, fear of the future, fear of their own inability to cope
what are defeated personalities?
people that seek to ward off aging and attempt to act young, exercising vigorously and engaging in youthful activities that could lead to unrealistic expectations and disappointment
what are integrated personalities?
people that cope comfortably with aging and accept becoming older with a sense of dignity
what is life review?
the point in life at which people examine and evaluate their lives
what is life review triggered by?
the increasingly obvious prospect of one's own death
does life review have positive or negative effects? why or why not?
life review can have positive effects, if we resolve lingering problems- it can also improve memory. However, it can have negative effects if people become obsessive about the past, reliving old insults and mistakes
what are age stratification theories?
the view that an unequal distribution of economic resources, power, and privilege exists among people at different stages of the life course
what is wisdom?
the expert knowledge in the practical aspect of life
does age bring wisdom?
though one of the benefits of age is supposed to be wisdom, developmentalists disagree on whether we should expect a relationship between wisdom and aging
what are the three major approaches that provide explanations to successful aging?
1. disengagement theory
2. activity theory
3. continuity theory
what is disengagement theory?
theory suggesting that late adulthood is marked by a gradual withdrawal from the world on physical, psychological, and social levels
what is activity theory?
theory suggesting that successful aging occurs when people maintain the interests, activities, and social interactions
what is the continuity theory?
theory suggesting that people need to maintain their desired level of involvement in society in order to maximize their sense of well-being and self-esteem
what is socioemotional selectivity theory?
theory suggesting that, as the time horizon of older adults decreases, they become more selective in the goals and activities in which they invest, opting for present-oriented goals and positive information
what is selective optimization?
the process by which people concentrate on selected skill areas to compensate for losses in other areas
what are the proceeding conditions to dealing successfully with aging?
developmental change over life span, reduction in general motivational, cognitive, and physical resources
what are the processes of successfully aging?
selection optimization compensation
what is the outcome of successful aging?
reduced and transformed but effective life
Contrary to the stereotype, only _____ percent of elderly people end their lives in a nursing home.
which race tends to live in a multigenerational household?
what us a continuing-care community?
a community that offers an environment in which all the residents are of retirement age or older and need various levels of care
what is assisted living?
support by medical providers as needed
what are adult day-care facilities?
settings in which elderly individuals receive care only during the day, but spend nights and weekends in their own homes
what are skilled-nursing facilities?
settings that provide full-time nursing care for people who have chronic illnesses or who are recovering from a temporary medical condition
what is institutionalism, and how can it develop?
it is a psychological state in which people develop apathy, indifference, and a lack of caring about themselves that can develop from fear of nursing homes
what is learned hopelessness?
the belief that one has no control over one's environment
what kind of finances do the elderly have to live off of?
The elderly must often live on a fixed income that rarely keeps up with inflation, like social security, pensions, and savings
True or false? as workers get older, their ability to perform their jobs declines.
False: there is little evidence to prove this
what are the five stages in the process of retirement?
1. honeymoon period (enjoy new activities their job didn't allow)
2. disenchantment (retirement isnt as nice as they thought)
3. reorientation (look for new engaging activities)
4. retirement routine (successfully adapts to retirement)
True or false? divorce later in life is harder on men.
what is true about married men and womens roles in retirement?
men become more affiliative and less competitive and women become more assertive and autonomous
what are the three stages of mourning a spouse?
2. grief and mourning
what is complicated grief?
a form of unrelenting mourning that continues sometimes for months or even years
why are friendships often more valued than family?
the element of control: we choose our friends, not our family
what is social support, and who provides it?
assistance and comfort supplied by another person, typically a friend, a network of caring, or family
what are some benefits of social support?
2. important for successful aging
3. can help furnish material support
4. can help in solving problems
why do parents often have a greater developmental stake in close ties?
they see their children as perpetuating their beliefs, values, and standards
which parent is often the recipient of communication?
which gender child tends to be in more frequent communication?
what is elder abuse?
the physical or psychological mistreatment or neglect of elderly individuals
elder abuse may affect at least ______ percent of the elderly population.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Human Development Chapter 17
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 19
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 1
Human Development Through Lifespan Chapter 2
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