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East Asia Final Exam
Terms in this set (108)
Japan's Kwantung Army
the largest army group of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1919 to 1945.
Zhang Zuolin (1875-1928)
an influential Chinese bandit, soldier, and warlord during the Warlord Era in China. The warlord of Manchuria from 1916 to 1928, and the military dictator of the Republic of China in 1927 and 1928, he rose from banditry to power and influence.
In 1932 Japan established this puppet state in their conquered territories of Manchuria. In 1933 the League of Nations reprimanded Japan, and so the nation withdrew from the organization, which was at the same time as Germany withdrawing as well
Henry pu yi, last emperor of china
Last emperor (1908-1911/12) of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (1644-1911/12) in China and puppet emperor of the Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo (Chinese: Manzhouguo) from 1934 to 1945.
The Xian Incident - 1936 - Events
-When Chiang Kaishek arrived in Xian Zhang took him prisoner
-200 soldiers had stormed into the hotel where he was staying
-He was held prisoner for 2 weeks, During that time they held long talks with representatives of the GMD, the CCP and the Russian government
-They freed him and in return he agreed to form a united front with the Communists against Japan
-The Russian government agreed to give them military aid
General and leader of Nationalist China after 1925. Although he succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang, he became a military dictator whose major goal was to crush the communist movement led by Mao Zedong.
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
United Front in China
The United Front in China is a strategy and a network of groups and key individuals that are influenced or controlled by the Chinese Communist Party and used to advance its interests.
Marco Polo Bridge Incident
A clash between Japanese and Chinese troops in the outskirts of Beijing on July 7, 1937. The Japanese government used this as an excuse to occupy Beijing. When Chiang Kai Shek refused to give way, full-scale war broke out between China and Japan.
Rape of Nanjing
Japanese attack on Chinese capital from 1937-1938 when Japanese aggressorts slaughtered 100,000 civilians and raped thousands of women in order to gain control of China.
the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet-Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939. The conflict was named after the river Khalkhin Gol, which passes through the battlefield.
Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US
Japan-Soviet Non-aggression Pact
was a neutrality pact between the Soviet Union and Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the conclusion of the Soviet-Japanese Border War
What Japan called the America-British-Chinese-Dutch trade embargoes against Japan; these countries stopped trading oil, steel, and other supplies Japan needed for its economy and military. Japan believed this was an act of "aggression."
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
As announced in 1940 by Japan's prime minister, the area extending from Manchuria to the Dutch East Indies in which Japan would expand its influence
Japanese army officer who initiated the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and who assumed dictatorial control of Japan during World War II
Fall of Singapore (February 1942)
Japan's offensive in southeast Asia also struck at the British Empire. Japanese aircraft sank the British battleship Prince of Wales and drove obsolete British aircraft from the skies over the Malay Peninsula. Allied troops were driven back toward Singapore, Britain's major base in the Far East. Reinforcements from Britain and Australia arrived too late to repair the situation, and British general Arthur Percival was forced to surrender in February 1942. The loss of Singapore stunned the British Empire. Many Indian prisoners captured at Singapore switched sides to fight for the Japanese; British and Australian POWs labored in terrible conditions on the Siam-Burma railway depicted in the novel The Bridge over the River Kwai.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
The Tokyo Conference was a conference held between March 28 and 30, 1942 at Tokyo by South-East Asian Indian Nationalist groups including the Indian Independence League, the Indian National Council, and smaller local Indian associations and clubs.
Wang Jingwei (1883-1944)
1883-1944, Chinese politician. A leading revolutionary, he struggled (1927-32) with Chiang Kai-shek for control of the Kuomintang. During World War II he was head of a Japanese puppetgovernment in Nanjing
Battle of Imphal
Battle between combined Japanese/Indian forces and British forces in northern India.
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
women forcibly recruited by the japanese army to serve in military brothels
The commander of the U.S. Air Force's 21st Bomber Command in the Pacific theater during World War II. LeMay is best known for developing the U.S. strategy of using massive incendiary bomb attacks on Japanese cities in order to break the Japanese will near the end of the war.
Leader of Indonesian independence movement; first president of Indonesia
Battle of Iwo Jima
lasted 6 weeks, several thousand marines, and more than 20,000 Japanese soldiers were killed, this battle is also notable for the famous photograph of US marines lifting the American flag to a standpoint
Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)
a. Atomic bombs dropped (1945)
b. Yalta Conference (1945)
c. The beginning of the Baby Boom (1945)
d. Truman Doctrine (1947)
e. Marshall Plan (1947)
f. NATO formed (1949)
g. Cold War (1946-1991)
Atomic Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
on August 6 and August 9, 1945; this effectively ended the US war with Japan in World War II
September 2, 1945
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-comunist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
US Occupation of Japan
United States plan to protect Japan from Communism after dropping an Atomic Bomb on it to end WWII.
(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
supreme commander of the allied forces
Dwight D. Eisenhower
general in the Imperial Japanese Army; conqueror
International Military Tribunal for the Far East
Also known as Tokyo Trial, Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, it was convened to try theleaders of Japan for crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity
Constitution of Japan (1947)
The progressive constitution granted universal suffrage, stripped Emperor Hirohito of all but symbolic power, stipulated a bill of rights, abolished peerage, and outlawed Japan's right to make war.
Reverse course (Japan)
Nickname given to the second stage of the post-war occupation of Japan, during which time some of the intial aims of the occupation were reversed. With the rise in the late 1940s of the Cold War (the struggle between the United States and its allies and the USSR and its allies), the American desire to reform Japan was overtaken by a desire to turn the country into a strong ally.
Japan's Prime Minister in 1957
San Francisco Peace Treaty
The treaty between Japan and allies powers it was created to compensate the prisoners of war and the civilians of the allied countries
Chinese Civil War
War between communist Mao Zse Tong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan
(1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People's Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
A prominent and influential member of the Chinese Communist Party during the time of Mao. He played a large role in China's reestablishing ties with the West.
People's Liberation Army (PLA)
The combined armed forces of the People's Republic of China, which includes land, sea, air, and strategic missile forces.
Minister of Defense. In 1964, published "Little Red Book," with quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong. Appointed as Mao's successor, but died in a plane crash in 1971 (scholars unsure if it was an accident or planned). Lin and Mao had grown apart. Lin was accused of betraying Mao, and some claimed he had planned a coup d'etat.
George C. Marshall
The head of allied forces in World War II; proposed economic aid to to rebuild Western Europe -> Marshall Plan
People's Republic of China (PRC)
Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang.
Republic of China (Taiwan)
State in East Asia from 1912-1949 occupied present day China and even Mongolia
a shift in the emphasis of US occupation policies in Japan after the onset of the Cold War, from demilitarization and democratization to limited rearming and economic recovery
as the first Premier of the People's Republic of China
Secretary of State
Charles Hartwell Bonesteel III was an American military commander, the son of Major General Charles Hartwell Bonesteel Jr. and grandson of Major Charles H. Bonesteel Sr. He served in the United States Army during World War II and the Korean War.
Republic of Korea (ROK)
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK)
a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula
Korean leader who became president of South Korea after World War II and led Korea during Korean War.
Kim Il Sung
Communist leader of North Korea; his attack on South Korea in 1950 started the Korean War. He remained in power until 1994.
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Great Leap Forward
Started by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, failed because there was no incentive to work harder, ended after 2 years.
The Five Year Plans were
Stalin's ideas for rapid increase of industrial production in the Soviet Union
Collective farms grouped together to organize farming and plan public services
Region seeking independence from the Chinese government
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
Mao Zedong's great effort in the mid-1960s to weed out capitalist tendencies that he believed had developed in China.
the Radical youth of the Cultural Revolution in China starting in 1966. Often wore red armbands and carried Mao's Little Red Book.
Richard Nixon visits China
Richard Nixon visited China in an attempt to normalize relations between the US and China. Considering China was not happy with the USSR, they were happy to cooperate more with the US in the future, rationalizing that the "enemy of my enemy is my friend".
Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.
Socialism with Chinese Characteristics
Chinese concept for describing their current economy which will continue to be socialist despite a large role for private firms, markets, and integration into the global economy
One Child Policy
Act in China that allows people to have only 1 child in the city and 2 children in the countryside.
Tiananmen Square Protests
Student protests for freedom of press, educational reform, and an end to political corruption. After protesting for several days, hundreds of protesters were killed by the Chinese military.
China's Great Internal Migration
migration to urban areas
Hong Kong and Macau
special westernized cities in china
China's "coming out party" as a global superpower. Zhang Yimou directed, performance of people as "movable type."
President of China
Belt and Road Initiative
the Belt and Road Initiative, known in Chinese and formerly in English as One Belt One Road or OBOR for short, is a global infrastructure development strategy adopted by the Chinese government in 2013 to invest in nearly 70 countries and international organizations.
Liberal Democratic Party
Monopolized Japanese government from its formation in 1955 into the 1990s; largely responsible for the economic reconstruction of Japan.
In Japan when the right and left wings of the Japan Socialist Party merged, and in the following month the two conservative parties Liberal and Democratic Parties merged to create the LDP. Desires were power and control of the government.
Ministry of Trade and Industry (MITI)
directed large parts of the Japanese economy and was one of the main reasons of the Japanese Economic Miracle; encourage firms to invest in high technology products and finished goods that can be exported
Japanese business groups after the post-WWII dismantling of the zaibatsu. They are Alliances of corporations each often centered around a bank. They dominate the post-WWII Japanese economy.
US-Japanese Security Treaty
A bilateral alliance between the United States and Japan, created in 1951 against the potential Soviet threat to Japan. The United States maintains troops in Japan and is committed to defend Japan if attacked, and Japan pays the United States to offset about half the cost of maintaining the troops.
Japan as Number One
Japanese businessman, co founder of Sony in 1946; also developed guidance systems and night-vision devices;
Economic Bubble Burst
The Japanese asset price bubble was an economic bubble in Japan from 1986 to 1991 in which real estate and stock market prices were greatly inflated. In early 1992, this price bubble burst and Japan's economy stagnated
orihiro Hosokawa is a Japanese politician who was Prime Minister of Japan from 1993 to 1994, leading a coalition government which was the first non-Liberal Democratic Party government of Japan since 1955.
Lost Decade (1990s)
the Lost Decade refers to a period of economic stagnation in Japan caused by the asset price bubble's collapse in late 1991. The term originally referred to the years from 1991 to 2000
anime and manga
Japanese comics and animation that reflects many themes. Perpetuates kawaii.
The reliance on diplomacy and negotiation to solve international problems.
s a Japanese fashion culture that involves schoolgirls wearing an outfit based on Japanese school uniforms, but with very short skirts.
Asian Development Bank
a multilateral development finance institution dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia & the Pacific. It was founded in 1966 with 31 members states & has now grown to include 64, including the US, many europen nations, & all asian nations, including the stans. Headquartered in Philippines
China's Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
multilateral development bank that aims to improve economic and social outcomes in Asia.
Hong Kong security law
It introduces new crimes with severe penalties - up to life in prison - and allows mainland security personnel to legally operate in Hong Kong with impunity. The legislation gives Beijing extensive powers it has never had before to shape life in the territory far beyond the legal system.
Muslims of Turkish descent living in Xinjiang, very close to borders with Pakistan, militants want to create separate ISlamic state, have used violence, riots broke out sparked by dissatisfaction with Chinese government's handling of deaths by workers
Spratly Islands in South China Sea
The People's Republic of China (PRC) claims all of the Spratly Islands as part of China based on history and not UNCLOS. ... The Republic of China (ROC), which ruled mainland China before 1949 and has been confined to Taiwan since 1949, also claims all of the Spratly Islands.
official ideology of North Korea, described by the government as "Kim Il-sung's original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought".
elected as the president in South Korea just before the Korean War started
Park Chung Hee
was a Republic of Korea Army general and the dictator of South Korea (the Republic of Korea) from 1961 to 1979. He has been credited with the industrialization of the Republic of Korea through export-led growth. His rule was ended by his assassination in 1979.
A Korean consortia financed through government banking groups to gain a strategic advantage.
May 18, 1980 uprising; stood as culmination of resistance efforts in the 70s against the Yusin constitution by Park Chung Hee in 1972; Park assassinated in 79 by head of KCIA and Korean people expected the opportunity to establish fully democratic order, and elected new president Choi Kyu-ha; Chun Doo Hwan, however, engineered a coup and his group of officer's held real power; faced with this reality, laborers and students staged large demonstrations calling for end to his control and lifting of martial law; when martial law extended on May 17 to entire country and campuses shutdown, event erupted; there was a shockingly brutal response by government troops; suspicion was fed that there were NK elements present; movement was indispensable element towards democraticization; US hesistant to aid as Chun Doo Hwan largely anti-communist; became president taking office in 1981;
Seoul Olympics (1988)
fter North Korea's bizarre bid to co-host the 1988 Olympics, it tried to disrupt them with a bomb. Once Korean Air Flight 858 was back in the air, the bomb exploded and killed all 115 people on board, most of them from South Korea
agreement between the US and North Korea signed in 1994
-The objective of the agreement was the freezing and replacement of North Korea's indigenous nuclear power plant program with more nuclear proliferation resistant light water reactor power plants, and the step-by-step normalization of relations between the U.S. and the DPRK.
-officially broke down in 2003
Kim Jong Il (1994-2011)
Kim Dae Jung (1998-2003)
current policy of active engagement and reconciliation by the government of South Korea towards North Korea
Axis of Evil
Created in 2002 by George W. Bush to show the "bad guys" which include: Iran, Iraq, and N. Korea
Six Party Talks
2003; meetings with North Korea, South Korea, China, USA, USSR, and Japan to find a resolution to security concerns about North Korea's nuclear program
North Korean nuclear test2006
Kim Jung Un - North Korea
Kim-Trump Singapore Summit
Talks between US and North Korea
the former president of what Asian country, where lawmakers and a constitutional court voted to remove her from office
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