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PSYC 2010 Exam 3 Module 11: Mental Health Treatment
Terms in this set (29)
The use of medication in treating mental health conditions
- an electrical current is distributed across their brain through electrodes placed on the temples. This causes a seizure. To counteract the physical effects of the seizure, patients today are anesthetized and given muscle relaxants. This confines the seizure to the brain.
- has been used to treat both psychotic and depressive symptoms.
- the memory loss associated with the treatment is still of concern
a psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
- an electromagnetic coil is placed against the scalp. This device delivers electromagnetic pulses that can be targeted to different regions of the brain - producing both activation and inactivation of various regions.
- This non-invasive and painless procedure is currently being investigated as a replacement for ECT in the treatment of depressive episodes and has shown great promise
deep brain stimulation
- an invasive procedure in which electrodes are surgically implanted into regions of the brain. Those electrodes can then be set to provide continuous or sometimes varying, but mild, electrical stimulation to a specific region of the brain.
- The treatment is reversible as the implant can be surgically removed
is often combined with pharmaceutical approaches to most effectively treat Depressive Disorders — pharmaceuticals may treat acute depression and address the more immediate need, while psychotherapy such as CBT leads to longer-lasting change.
- Psychoanalytic therapy was pioneered by Freud and is based on his theoretical perspective on consciousness and the psyche - which we have discussed at some length in previous modules. Psychodynamic therapy is the modern-day form of the approach.
- Freud believed that if you could identify the root cause - the unconscious conflict or process underlying the mental health symptoms, and then help the patient resolve that conflict, their mental health symptoms would dissipate.
- a psychoanalyst uses powers of interpretation to get around the patient's conscious defenses to unlock the latent content of the unconscious mind.
is based on the premise that people develop habitual ways of thinking about the world. As such, treatments in this approach focus on 1) Identifying maladaptive thoughts, 2) recognizing that those thoughts are maladaptive, and 3) identifying more adaptive ways of thinking.
used in the treatment of phobias.a therapist seeks to treat clients' fears or anxiety by presenting them with the object or situation that causes their problem, with the idea that they will eventually get used to it. Exposure therapy seeks to change the response to a conditioned stimulus (CS). An unconditioned stimulus is presented over and over just after the presentation of the conditioned stimulus. This
Through this therapeutic intervention, the client is asked to reflect on the way they think about the experiences that they have. The client is asked to journal or keep track of, 1) the experiences they have that lead to distress 2) how they thought about and reacted those events, and 3) how that made them feel. The therapist then uses those reflections to point out the distress-inducing habitual patterns of thought, challenges that way of thinking, and then helps the patient to identify more adaptive ways of thinking that lead to less distress.
cognitive therapy requires meta-cognition - thinking about your own patterns of thought. As such, clients need to be taught and encouraged to be more mindful.
A popular form of exposure therapy. wherein a calm and pleasant state is gradually associated with increasing levels of anxiety-inducing stimuli. During the initial stages of this treatment, the client is asked to make a fear hierarchy. This therapy works by extinguishing the feared response that the patient has learned to the stimulus. Previously, when they saw a spider, they expected bad things to happen. But now they have seen that when they do see a spider, it doesn't lead to what they expect.
born out of the humanist movement. it an approach to interacting with a client to help them to identify the discrepancy between where they are presently and where they'd like to be, as well as to think of actionable plans to pursue their goals. Ultimately, this is done to encourage the patient to feel motivated to take concrete steps toward pursuing those goals.
This means that the evidence suggests they either cause more harm than they do good or that they are costly and time-intensive with little or no benefit. Essentially, these are interventions that research has shown to be ineffective or harmful.
What is the typical role of psychopharmaceutical drugs in treating depression or anxiety?
Depression: Prozac and other SSRIs have been found to be somewhat effective with relatively few serious side effects.
How effective was lobotomy as a treatment? What concerns were expressed about it?
While lobotomies were pretty effective. The lobotomies were not always warrented and carried significant side effects such as patients become incontinent, have their emotions and personalities blunted, and in some cases, patients are left with the temperament of a young child or infant. While many benefitted from the lobotomy, many others had their lives ruined by the procedure.
What is electroconvulsive therapy? How might it be used today?
an electrical current is distributed across their brain through electrodes placed on the temples. This causes a seizure. To counteract the physical effects of the seizure, patients today are anesthetized and given muscle relaxants. This confines the seizure to the brain. It was used to treat both psychotic and depressive symptoms. Patients used to be held down by leather straps and would break bones or get great bruises. Now they use a muscle relaxer.
What approaches are used in psychodynamic therapy, client-centered therapy, cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy?
- Psychodynamic theory is the modern-day psychoanalytic therapy approach.
What is a key difference between psychodynamic therapy and client-centered therapy?
- In psychoanalytic therapy, the psychoanalyst is responsible for interpreting what the client says
- in client-centered therapy, the therapist is present to ask probing questions and guide the client toward greater self-understanding; recognizing their own motivations, sources of distress, and capabilities to cope with that distress.
What is the purpose of dream analysis, free association, and projective tests? What is a key criticism of those techniques?
They are all examples of the psychoanalytic/ psychodynamic therapy.
- Dream analysis criticism: There is little, if any evidence of the reliability and validity of dream analysis as well as little evidence that such approaches are particularly effective in reducing patient symptoms. we should remain highly skeptical of this approach.
- free association: whether the interpretations that the psychoanalyst provides represent what the content really means lacks evidence and the reliability of these interpretations are also in question as the interpretations could be different from one therapist to the next.
- projective tests: while projective tests can provide some insight, they are not the most effective way of doing so. Simply put, there are often better options available.
How does exposure therapy illustrate the principles of behavior therapy?
- exposure therapy illustrates the strategy used in behavioral therapy called systematic desensitization. This is used to treat phobias by extinguishing the learned feared response that the patient has to the stimulus.
What is the OARS approach to interviewing?
- OARS is a technique for motivational interviewing.
- the client needs to be heavily involved in the process.
- gives greater insight to the client
- O: Open-ended questions
- A: Affirmation
- R: Reflective listening
- S: Summarization
- Goal is to give the client the motivation to want to change
How is treatment effectiveness assessed with a randomized controlled trial?
- An RCT is essentially an experiment with therapy.
- Researchers identify a large sample of individuals with a particular diagnosis.
- They then randomly assign those individuals to at least two different groups, One that receives the treatment and the other receives a placebo (or inactive) form of the treatment.
- We track patient symptoms over time and compare between the two groups.- to show that our drug is effective, we would need to see that those in the active drug group show a greater reduction in symptoms. If they don't, it would suggest the active drug is ineffective.
What are the differences between clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and counseling psychologists?
- Clinical psychologists typically have Ph.D. or Psy.D. and work in hospitals, private practice, or academic settings. A Ph.D. is usually research-based with a focus on evidence-based approaches A Psy.D. degree is focused on clinical skills (not research).
- Psychiatrists have a medical degree (M.D.) and typically work in hospitals or private practice. They are the only mental health practitioners who can prescribe drugs.
- Counseling psychologists often have a Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology. Their focus is on helping with life stress and adjustment, rather than psychological disorders. They often work in schools, colleges, and private practice.
What treatments appear to be effective in treating depressive disorder?
- Prozac and other Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
- Cognitive-Behavioral therapy helps people think in a more adaptive way — identifying and then replacing maladaptive ways of thinking.
- Psychotherapy is often combined with pharmaceutical approaches to most effectively treat Depressive Disorders
What treatments appear to be effective in treating schizophrenia?
- Antipsychotic medications can be effective in treating many of the symptoms of schizophrenia (including delusions, hallucinations, and negative symptoms). These pharmaceuticals are most effective when combined with psychotherapy or other therapeutic approaches
- social skills training may be used to address communication and other difficulties
How effective are treatments for antisocial personality disorder?
- the most promising approach may be to address the risk factors associated with APD, including inadequate nutrition early in life.
What treatments appear to be effective in treating ADHD?
- Ritalin and Adderall have been shown to decrease distractibility and overactivity while increasing concentration and attention
- Psychotherapy for ADHD is often focused on reinforcing positive behaviors and perhaps (given its lesser effectiveness) punishing or ignoring negative behaviors.
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