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Glencoe 2012


The specific location of a place, including its physical setting


An expression of relative location


A particular space with physical and human meaning


Areas with similar characteristics

Formal Region

A region that has a common characteristic, such as a product produced there

Functional Region

A region that is a central place and the surrounding area is linked to it

Perceptual Region

A region defined by popular feelings and images rather than by objective data


A community of plants and animals that depend upon one another, and their surroundings, for survival


The act or process of changing place or location

Human-Environment Interaction

The study of the interrelationship between people and their physical environment


The process of designing and making maps

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Computer tools that process and organize data and satellite images with other types of information gathered by geographers and other scientists


The number of births per year for every 1,000 people

Death Rate

The number of deaths per year for every 1,000 people

Natural Increase

The growth rate, which is the difference between an area's birthrate and its death rate


The movement of people from place to place

Demographic Transition

A model that uses birthrates and death rates to show changes in the population trends of a country or region

Doubling Time

The number of years it takes a population to double in size

Population Distribution

The pattern of human settlement

Population Density

The number of people living on a square mile or square kilometer of land


The way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs

Language Families

Large groups of languages having similar roots

Ethnic Group

Made up of a group of people who share a common language, history, place of origin, or a combination of these elements

Culture Region

Regions that have certain traits in common, like economic systems, forms of government, and social groups

Cultural Diffusion

The process of spreading new knowledge from one culture to another

Culture Hearths

Early centers of civilization whose ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas

Unitary System

System of government that gives all key powers to the national or central government

Federal System

System of government that divides the powers of government between national government and state or provincial governments (i.e. the U.S.)


Any system of government in which the power and authority to rule belong to a single individual


Another form of autocratic government where the king or queen exercises the supreme powers of government


Any system of government in which a small group holds power


Any system of government in which leaders rule with the consent of the citizens

Traditional Economy

Economy in which habit and custom determine the rules for all economic activity

Market Economy

Economy in which individuals and private groups make decisions about what to produce

Mixed Economy

Economy in which the government supports and regulates free enterprise through decisions that affect the marketplace

Command Economy

Economy in which the government owns or directs the means of production and controls the distribution of goods

Natural Resources

Elements from the Earth that are not made by people but can be used by them for food, fuel, or other necessities


The spread of industry

Developed Countries

Countries having much technology and manufacturing

Newly Industrialized Countries

Countries that have moved from primarily agricultural to primarily manufacturing and industrial activities

Developing Countries

Countries working toward greater manufacturing and technology use

Free Trade

The removal of trade barriers so that goods can flow freely among countries

European Union

The world's largest trading bloc and includes many of the countries of Europe


The release of unclean or toxic elements into the air, water, and land

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