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World Cultures Unit 1: The World WY

Glencoe 2012
STUDY
PLAY
Site
The specific location of a place, including its physical setting
Situation
An expression of relative location
Place
A particular space with physical and human meaning
Regions
Areas with similar characteristics
Formal Region
A region that has a common characteristic, such as a product produced there
Functional Region
A region that is a central place and the surrounding area is linked to it
Perceptual Region
A region defined by popular feelings and images rather than by objective data
Ecosystem
A community of plants and animals that depend upon one another, and their surroundings, for survival
Movement
The act or process of changing place or location
Human-Environment Interaction
The study of the interrelationship between people and their physical environment
Cartography
The process of designing and making maps
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Computer tools that process and organize data and satellite images with other types of information gathered by geographers and other scientists
Birthrate
The number of births per year for every 1,000 people
Death Rate
The number of deaths per year for every 1,000 people
Natural Increase
The growth rate, which is the difference between an area's birthrate and its death rate
Migration
The movement of people from place to place
Demographic Transition
A model that uses birthrates and death rates to show changes in the population trends of a country or region
Doubling Time
The number of years it takes a population to double in size
Population Distribution
The pattern of human settlement
Population Density
The number of people living on a square mile or square kilometer of land
Culture
The way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs
Language Families
Large groups of languages having similar roots
Ethnic Group
Made up of a group of people who share a common language, history, place of origin, or a combination of these elements
Culture Region
Regions that have certain traits in common, like economic systems, forms of government, and social groups
Cultural Diffusion
The process of spreading new knowledge from one culture to another
Culture Hearths
Early centers of civilization whose ideas and practices spread to surrounding areas
Unitary System
System of government that gives all key powers to the national or central government
Federal System
System of government that divides the powers of government between national government and state or provincial governments (i.e. the U.S.)
Autocracy
Any system of government in which the power and authority to rule belong to a single individual
Monarchy
Another form of autocratic government where the king or queen exercises the supreme powers of government
Oligarchy
Any system of government in which a small group holds power
Democracy
Any system of government in which leaders rule with the consent of the citizens
Traditional Economy
Economy in which habit and custom determine the rules for all economic activity
Market Economy
Economy in which individuals and private groups make decisions about what to produce
Mixed Economy
Economy in which the government supports and regulates free enterprise through decisions that affect the marketplace
Command Economy
Economy in which the government owns or directs the means of production and controls the distribution of goods
Natural Resources
Elements from the Earth that are not made by people but can be used by them for food, fuel, or other necessities
Industrialization
The spread of industry
Developed Countries
Countries having much technology and manufacturing
Newly Industrialized Countries
Countries that have moved from primarily agricultural to primarily manufacturing and industrial activities
Developing Countries
Countries working toward greater manufacturing and technology use
Free Trade
The removal of trade barriers so that goods can flow freely among countries
European Union
The world's largest trading bloc and includes many of the countries of Europe
Pollution
The release of unclean or toxic elements into the air, water, and land