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Glencoe 2012


The process in which glaciers formed and spread


Mountain system formed by glaciation and folding

Northern European Plain

Also known as the Great European Plain


A fine, rich wind-borne soil left by glaciers


Large banks of earth and stone


Low-lying area from which seawater has been drained to create new farmland


Long, narrow, steep-sided inlets


Soil that is permanently frozen below the surface


The elevation above which trees cannot grow


A strong north word from the Alps


Hot, dry winds from North Africa


Winter winds which can trigger avalanches


Destructive masses of ice, snow, and rock sliding down mountainsides


A person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence


People who flee to another country for safety

Middle Ages

Period of time that lasted from 500 A.D. to 1500 A.D., known as the period between ancient and modern times


A system in which monarchs or lords gave them to nobles in return for pledges of loyalty


A religious movement of the 1500s that lessened the power of the Roman Catholic Church and introduced Protestantism to Europe


A movement to value reason and question tradition

Industrial Revolution

Transformed manufacturing in Europe by replacing human labor with machines

Industrial Capitalism

An economic system in which owners used profits to expand their companies


A philosophy that called for economic equality and ownership of resources by workers

Cold War

A power struggle between the Soviet-controlled Communist world and the non-Communist world

European Union

Group of countries whose goal is a united Europe in which goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries

Welfare States

Countries that provide healthcare programs funded by governments


Style in the late 1700s that focused on emotions, stirring historical events, and the struggles of individuals

Guest Workers

Foreigners who work on a temporary basis in a country other than ones in which they are citizens


France's capital


The commercial center of Belgium and the administrative center for the European Union


A series of brutal religious wars to win Palestine, the birthplace of Christianity, from Muslim rule


Payment for damages


The mass murder of more than 6 million European Jews


Focusing on accurately depicting the details of everyday life


A group of French painters who moved outdoors to capture immediate experiences, or "impressions" of the natural world


Separate communites


Europe's period of artisitic and intellectual achievement that began in the 1300s in Italy


Division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile with each other

Ethnic Cleansing

Expelling or killing rival ethnic groups in an area

Heavy Industry

The manufacture of machinery and industrial equipment

Light Industry

The manufacture of high-end electronics or specialty tools

Mixed Farming

Raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same farm

Farm Cooperatives

Organizations in which farmers share in growing and selling products, reduce costs and increase profits

Genetically Modified Foods

Foods with genes altered to make them grow bigger or faster or be more resistant to pests

Organic Farming

Using natural substances instead of chemicals to increase crop yields

Maastricht Treaty

Treaty which set up the European Union

Dry Farming

A way of farming in dry areas that produces crops without any irrigation and relies on farming methods that conserve soil moisture

Acid Rain

Precipitation carrying large amounts of dissolved acids which damages buildings, forests, and crops, and kills wildlife


The result of melting snow and ice

Acid Deposition

Wet or dry acid pollution that falls to the ground


People concerned with the quality of the environment

Global Warming

Gradual warming of the Earth and its atmosphere that may be caused in part by pollution and an increase in the greenhouse effect

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