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World Cultures Unit 4: Europe WY

Glencoe 2012
STUDY
PLAY
Glaciation
The process in which glaciers formed and spread
Alps
Mountain system formed by glaciation and folding
Northern European Plain
Also known as the Great European Plain
Loess
A fine, rich wind-borne soil left by glaciers
Dikes
Large banks of earth and stone
Polders
Low-lying area from which seawater has been drained to create new farmland
Fjords
Long, narrow, steep-sided inlets
Permafrost
Soil that is permanently frozen below the surface
Timberline
The elevation above which trees cannot grow
Mistral
A strong north word from the Alps
Siroccos
Hot, dry winds from North Africa
Foehns
Winter winds which can trigger avalanches
Avalanches
Destructive masses of ice, snow, and rock sliding down mountainsides
Immigrant
A person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence
Refugees
People who flee to another country for safety
Middle Ages
Period of time that lasted from 500 A.D. to 1500 A.D., known as the period between ancient and modern times
Feudalism
A system in which monarchs or lords gave them to nobles in return for pledges of loyalty
Reformation
A religious movement of the 1500s that lessened the power of the Roman Catholic Church and introduced Protestantism to Europe
Enlightenment
A movement to value reason and question tradition
Industrial Revolution
Transformed manufacturing in Europe by replacing human labor with machines
Industrial Capitalism
An economic system in which owners used profits to expand their companies
Communism
A philosophy that called for economic equality and ownership of resources by workers
Cold War
A power struggle between the Soviet-controlled Communist world and the non-Communist world
European Union
Group of countries whose goal is a united Europe in which goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries
Welfare States
Countries that provide healthcare programs funded by governments
Romanticism
Style in the late 1700s that focused on emotions, stirring historical events, and the struggles of individuals
Guest Workers
Foreigners who work on a temporary basis in a country other than ones in which they are citizens
Paris
France's capital
Brussels
The commercial center of Belgium and the administrative center for the European Union
Crusades
A series of brutal religious wars to win Palestine, the birthplace of Christianity, from Muslim rule
Reparations
Payment for damages
Holocaust
The mass murder of more than 6 million European Jews
Realism
Focusing on accurately depicting the details of everyday life
Impressionists
A group of French painters who moved outdoors to capture immediate experiences, or "impressions" of the natural world
City-States
Separate communites
Renaissance
Europe's period of artisitic and intellectual achievement that began in the 1300s in Italy
Balkanization
Division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile with each other
Ethnic Cleansing
Expelling or killing rival ethnic groups in an area
Heavy Industry
The manufacture of machinery and industrial equipment
Light Industry
The manufacture of high-end electronics or specialty tools
Mixed Farming
Raising several kinds of crops and livestock on the same farm
Farm Cooperatives
Organizations in which farmers share in growing and selling products, reduce costs and increase profits
Genetically Modified Foods
Foods with genes altered to make them grow bigger or faster or be more resistant to pests
Organic Farming
Using natural substances instead of chemicals to increase crop yields
Maastricht Treaty
Treaty which set up the European Union
Dry Farming
A way of farming in dry areas that produces crops without any irrigation and relies on farming methods that conserve soil moisture
Acid Rain
Precipitation carrying large amounts of dissolved acids which damages buildings, forests, and crops, and kills wildlife
Meltwater
The result of melting snow and ice
Acid Deposition
Wet or dry acid pollution that falls to the ground
Environmentalists
People concerned with the quality of the environment
Global Warming
Gradual warming of the Earth and its atmosphere that may be caused in part by pollution and an increase in the greenhouse effect