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biopsych module 13: psychopathology
Terms in this set (78)
_______ diathesis + high ______ = threshold for disorder
loe diathesis + high stress
True or False:
In the Rat Park Study, the rats continued to drink the drug water, despite moving to Rat Park, suggesting that social support was insufficient to reduce their drug use.
Write out the mesocortical pathway:
vta sends signals to frontal cortex
Write out the mesolimbic pathway:
vta sends signals to nucleus accumbens
What neurotransmitter works with these pathways?
What is Lewisohn's Behavioral Theory of Depression?
Depression is caused by the removal of positive reinforcement from the environment, such as losing your job. This leads to a person being less active, receiving less positive reinforcement, which causes a low mood.
True or False:
ECT is very effective for depression. However, it is quite painful for the patient, so it's rarely used.
false-it is not painful
Name one positive, one negative and one cognitive symptom of schizophrenia.
cognitive: memory problems
What is the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia?
There is an overactivation of dopamine receptors, especially D2 receptors. Overactivation of the mesolimbic system may be responsible for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Dopamine antagonists reduce symptoms, which provides support for this hypothesis.
Habitual behavior such as drug taking or gambling that causes harm to an individual's mental or physical health or negatively effects social or work life.
risk factors for addiction
- age of onset
- other disorders (depression/anxiety)
- personality traits like impulsivity/antisocial
- early trauma
Peak onset of drug addiction is ___ years old
what are rates of addiction highly correlated with?
the age at which the drug is first tried and used
A famous study in the research of addiction showing that rats that live in a comfortable and socially stimulating environment are not motivated to take drugs.
rat park study
genetic/biological vulnerability (can be high or low)
a diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is coupled with a precipitating event
A theory that avoiding withdrawal or reducing adversity is the cause of drug addiction—not a complete theory
negative reinforcement theory
what are some criticisms of the negative reinforcement theory
- highly addictive drugs do not produce withdrawal symptoms
- people relapse long after withdrawal symptoms
- some drugs produce withdrawal but do not promote addiction
The idea that drug addiction is maintained by the pleasure one gets from taking the drug—not a complete theory.
positive reinforcement theory
criticisms of positive reinforcement theory
Euphoric feeling often goes away.
Some addictive drugs do not produce pleasurable feelings.
The destruction that drug addiction produce far outweigh any pleasure from the drug
A dopaminergic pathway in the brain leading from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. It is the motivation center highly involved in addiction and craving.
Mesotelencephalic dopamine system (MTDS)
Ventral tegmentum (VTA) sends signals to the nucleus accumbens, releasing dopamine
mesocortical pathway =
VTA sends signals to frontal cortex, releasing dopamine
what is the MTDS activated by?
addictive drugs, stimulus associated with the drug, anticipation in reward of drug
when is the MTDS activated most?
when there is uncertainty about the reward
the MTDS is not the pleasure center of the brain but the ____ center
do it again/ motivation
Symptoms such as hopelessness and worthlessness that last for weeks to years.
major depressive disorder
symptoms of MDD
Depressed or irritable mood
Inability to experience pleasure (anhedonia)
Hopelessness, helplessness, and feelings of worthlessness
Poor sleep, decreased sex drive and change in appetite
____ Affects 3% of the world's population and about 7% of people will experience ____ at some point in their life
MDD is twice as likely in ____ than ____
women then men
what is MDD linked to ?
anixety disorders, substance abuse and suicide
The hypothesis that depression is caused by an underactivation of monamines, especially serotonin and norepinephrine.
antidepressants are monoamine ________
what is the diathesis-stress hypothesis for depression?
there is some genetic component (children with depressed mothers are more liekly)
Medication for depression that decreases enzymes that break up monoamines in the synapse.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
________ Increases monoamine activity in the synapse
Monoamine oxidase inhibitor
A metabolic side effect to taking MAOIs that causes hypertension if the wrong foods, like cheeses, are eaten.
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors that are not used as often today because of side effects.
_____ can be fatal in high doses
Commonly prescribed antidepressants that block the reuptake of serotonin.
what is the most common treatment of depression?
examples of SSRI
Zoloft, Paxil, Prozac
Antidepressants that block the reuptake of norepinephrine.
Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI)
SSRI and SNRI take ____ to work
4 to 6 weeks
A type of theory where people recognize and identify the causes of negative thoughts and work to replace them with positive thoughts and actions.
cognitive behavioral therapy
what is the most effective treatement for depression
Medication along with CBT is the most effective treatment
A treatment for severe depression where a seizure is induced with electricity to an anesthetized patient.
A spectrum dissociative disorder characterized by difficulty with reality, hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia.
_____ and ____ Symptoms emerge first, followed by Positive symptoms
negative and cognitive
what is the typical onset of schizophrenia is males and females
females- late 20s
Symptoms of schizophrenia that are "added" to typical behavior such as hallucinations and delusions.
positive symptoms of schizophrenia
A positive symptom of schizophrenia where people see things that are not there.
A positive symptom of schizophrenia where a person believes they have superior ability or importance.
A positive symptom of schizophrenia where an individual wrongly believes that people are out to harm them or they are being targeted by individuals or organizations.
A positive symptom of schizophrenia where someone believes that there are hidden messages in advertisements, on the internet, or on television created just for them.
delusion of reference
Symptoms of schizophrenia that are removed from typical behavior such as decreased emotions and withdrawal from society.
A negative symptom of schizophrenia where someone withdraws from people and other social environments.
A negative symptom of schizophrenia in which a person shows little or no emotions or emotional expressions.
blunting of affect
Reduced or inability to experience pleasure. Anhedonia is a negative symptom of schizophrenia.
A negative symptom of schizophrenia where someone shows reduced speech.
negative symptoms of schizophrenia
asociality, anhedonia, lack of motivation, blunt of affect, catatonia
Symptoms of schizophrenia where a person has difficutly planning, sustaining attention, organizing thoughts, and other executive functions.
examples of cognitive symptoms
Difficulty thinking rationally or speaking coherently
Problems of attention and organization
Difficulty following instructions
Causes of Schizophrenia
genetic factors, biochemical imbalances, brain abnormalities, psychosocial influences and stress
A large international study investigating the genetic markers linked to schizophrenia.
Genome-Wide association studies GWAS
risk factors for schizophrenia
- prenatal viurs exposure
- stress inducing environmental factors
- infection as a child
- born in winter
A model of schizophrenia and other disorders in which the genes linked to a disorder are expressed during stressful events.
diathesis stress model
A hypothesis that schizophrenia is in part due to overactivation of dopamine receptors, such as D2.
structural changes in schizophrenia
enlarged ventricles, overall decrease in gray matter in frontal and temporal lobes
Overactivation in the _____ system may be responsible for positive symptoms
mesolimbic (VTA → nucleus accumbens)
_____ antagonists reduce symptoms of schizophrenia, providing support for this hypothesis
A hypothesis that a cause of schizophrenia is underactivation of glutamate.
glutamate-hypo functioning hypothesis
what supports the glutamate-hypo functioning hypothesis?
Drugs that are glutamate antagonists like ketamine and PCP can produce schizophrenic-like symptoms
Medication such as chlorpromazine and haloperidol that are dopamine agonists that treat symptoms of schizophrenia. They also have several side effects.
Uncontrollable muscle twitching, especially in the face, that is a side effect of typical antipsychotics.
A new generation of medication to treat schizophrenia that does not produce the same severity of side effects as typical antipsychotics.
An atypical antipsychotic that is an antagonist for dopamine and serotonin and does not produce the same level of motor problems as typical antipsychotics. It does have side effects like weight gain, a weakened immune system, and muscle stiffness.
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