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summatives adult lang disorders
Terms in this set (86)
3 layers that protect the brain
meninges (dura mater, arachnoid membrane, pia mater)
•This clear and colorless fluid circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord, cushioning and protecting them from injury
__ produces cerebrospinal fluid
•occurs when the flowof CSF is obstructed and accumulates in the ventricles or subarachnoid space.
cerebral cortex is aka __
cerebral cortex integrates __ and __ signals from what 3 areas?
sensory; motor; sensory, motor, associations
get input from the environment and include touch, taste, smell, vision, and hearing.
involve muscular activity and effect movement in response to needs and wants.
-connect the sensory and motor areas and give us the ability to integrate and interpret daily events.
-contains nerve cell bodies, glial cells, capillaries, axons, and dendrites.
-directs sensory or motor stimuli to the interneurons of the CNS for responsiveness via synaptic activation.
-consists of axons that travel throughout the cortex, and connect with other nerves.
white matter - white refers to the color fo the __
the left and right hemispheres are connected by the __
-typically best at processing speech and language and is involved in verbal memory.
-typically best at processing paralinguistic information and pragmatics as well as non-linguistic information that is visual, spatial, musical, and emotional.
one side of the body is weak
one side of the body is paralyzed
•make us conscious of our actions and thoughts.
•house the primary and secondary auditory cortex and are involved in auditory sensation and perception.
•receive and evaluate most sensory information including touch, pressure, pain, temperature, and taste. They help us identify objects by sensations of touch.
•the primary target for projections from the thalamus and receives sensory information from fibers in the eyes.
the brain receives its blood supply from the __ and __
carotid; vertebral basilar arteries
the internal carotids supply blood to the brain and further subdivides into what three areas?
-Anterior cerebral artery (ACA)
-Middle cerebral artery (MCA)
-Posterior cerebral artery (PCA)
•A disturbance in the blood supply to the brain, lasting only seconds, can cause neurological symptoms and irreversible neuronal brain damage, in minutes.
cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
two types of strokes
blockage of blood type of stroke
bursting type of stroke
most strokes are what type
ischemic strokes generally result from a __ or a __
A collection of fat and blood from the diseased artery that narrows it and blocks the flow of blood going to the brain, causing ischemia; it's stationary
A blood clot containing arterial debris that travels to a smaller artery and "gets stuck".
what 6 language functions should you assess if you suspect someone has aphasia
speech fluency, language comprehension, automatic speech, repetition, recall words/naming, syntax
although aphasia is a primary disorder of language, __ functions may or may not be impaired
the __ includes cognitive assessment and treatment in the person with aphasia
ALD target model
what 5 areas are included for assessment in a person with aphasia using the ALD target model
attention, memory, language, executive functions, visuospatial skills
what are the 4 types of memory
episodic, working, semantic, procedural
•This is used to recall past events. People with dementia have great difficulty with this.
•This is needed for higher-order language tasks. Sequencing information and holding it in memory while being processed requires working memory, e.g., in conversation
•This is the storehouse for conceptual knowledge of the world and for facts. This type of memory relies on retrieval of facts and concepts often learned in school.
•This is used during the execution of automatic tasks and relates to how an individual physically carries out a previously learned task.
any test used to evaluate a person with aphasia should include the following 5 language areas
semantics, syntax, morphology, phonology, pragmatics
what 7 areas are included in executive functions?
•accomplishing goal-directed behavior
visual perception encompasses the ability to do what four things with visual stimuli?
discriminate, analyze, recognize, interpret
•defined as the ability to combine visual perception with a motor response. This skill is necessary for writing, printing, and drawing.
when planning for treatment, we should take into account what four things?
patient's impairments, desires/wants, current skills, what patients needs to function
❑The ability to name objects and pictures, in structured tasks as well as at the conversational level
❑Non-fluent speech with absence of function words
❑Speech is primarily nouns and verbs and is telegraphic
❑Fluent speech with inaccurate syntactic rule application
❑Incorrect subject-verb agreement and tense markers, inappropriate pronouns used, etc.
three types of paraphasias
phonemic, semantic, neologisms
❑A similar sounding word is substituted for the intended word.
❑a word that is related to the desired target word.
❑not "real" words although they follow the phonological rules of the language, i.e., that could be "real" if the language had such a conceptual and semantic category.
❑a type of aphasia that is characterized by a predominance of neologistic output.
what are the 3 types of perseverations
stuck in set, continuous, recurrent
❑The inappropriate maintenance of a category or framework after a new task is introduced and a new response is expected.
stuck in set perseveration
❑An inappropriate prolongation of a behavior that should stop cannot be inhibited so the response continues.
❑Inappropriate recurrence of a previous response after a new stimulus is given and a new response is expected.
Effortful and bad articulation
More nouns without function words
Aware of their speech problems
Auditory comprehension preserved
Agrammatism is a hallmark of this type (meaning mainly uses content words)
All language modalities
Fairly good auditory comprehension
Bradykinesia (slow movement)
Most evident at the conversational level
Ask questions that are predictable and focus on concrete topics
transcortical motor aphasia
5 treatment areas for non-fluent aphasias
co-articulated speech, oral expression tasks, auditory comprehension, writing, understanding written language
what are 6 formal treatment programs for those with non-fluent aphasia
PACE: promoting aphasics communicative effectiveness, Mapping Treatment considers deficits associated with constructional rather than morphological aspects, Melodic Intonation Therapy, Sentence Production program for aphasia (SPPA), Response Elaboration Training, Gestural Response Treatment
Poor auditory comprehension
Anosognosia: unaware of their impairments
Less severe form of Wernicke's
Initially mistaken for Alzheimer's
Fluent, well-articulated speech
Auditory comp deficits
Can repeat what is said by relying on phonological system
Word finding problems
transcortical sensory aphasia
Good auditory comprehension
Difficulty with word finding
Good recognition of errors with attempts to self-correct
Return to near normal levels
Lexical retrieval is major impairment
__ may result from stroke, trauma, tumor, or degenerative disease
right hemisphere disorder
people with __ often have difficulty with:
•integrating verbal information into an overall theme
•ignoring unneeded information
making revisions to accompany new information.
right hemisphere disorder
those with right hemisphere disorder have verbal deficits that are __ and __
those with right hemisphere disorder have __, __, __, __, and __ deficits
visual perceptual, auditory perceptual, emotional affect, cognitive, communication
inability to recognize and identify objects or persons
inability to recognize faces including ones own face
a person's inability to focus attention on the whole image
making the patient unable to identify sounds
lack of deficit awareness
patients with right hemisphere disorder typically present with __ deficits
two types of TBI head injuries
penetrating (open), non-penetrating (closed)
If swelling and pressure in the skull is not stopped through surgery, cooling, medication, or by other medical intervention, the brain will swell to the point that it is pushed down through the opening at the base of the skull
what are the 2 types of amnesia
Inability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia
•Memories created prior to the event are lost.
a mild brain injury means a score greater than __ on the glasgow coma scale
Loss of consciousness and/or confusion and disorientation lasting less than 20-30 min.
mild brain injury
glasgow coma scale
severe = __-__ points
moderate = __-__ points
mild = __-__ points
•the result of a mild injury with a brief loss of consciousness and/or post-traumatic amnesia
post concussive syndrome
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