41 terms

Holt Biology Chapter 23-26 Plants

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Whats the difference between the male & female gametophytes?
An immature male gametophyte has a thick protective wall. The female gametophyte develops inside an ovule.
Antheridium
the male sex organ of spore-producing plants
Archegonium
a female sex organ occurring in most gymnosperms
What are the major parts of the seed?
Pollen tube, Seed Coat, Cotyledons
What are the structure of leaves, stems, & roots?
Leaves-- absorb sunlight.
Stems-- support the leaves, & carry water & food from place to place.
Roots-- absorbs nutrients and store food.
What are the major parts of a flower?
Sepals, petals, stamens, anther, pistils, ovary.
What is the function of the stomatta?
Small slits in the epidermis help exchange gases.
What is the function of guard cells?
They regulate exchange of water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide.
What is he difference between annuals, biennials, and perennials.?
A biennial plant lives two years. A annual plant lives for one year. A perennial lives for many years
how do plant hormones control plant growth?
They signal molecules produced within the plant.
germination
the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
What is a pollen tube & its function?
Enables a sperm to pass directly to an egg
What is a seed coat & its function?
The outer cell layers of an ovule harden to protect the seed.
What are cotyledons & their function?
Leaflike structures that help transfer nutrients to the embryo.
What is a sepal & its function?
Protects the flower from damage while its still a bud.
What are petals & their function?
Attracts pollinators.
What is a stamen & its function?
Produces pollen.
What is an anther & its function?
A threadlike filament which each stamen is made of.
What are pistils & their function?
Produces ovules.
What is an ovary & its function?
A stalk that pollen lands on and sticks to the stigma.
nonvascular plant
a plant that lacks specialized tissues to move water and nutrients and true roots, stems, and leaves
Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
nonvascular plants
vascular plants
have tissues made of cells that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant
gymnosperm
a woody, vascular seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed by an ovary or fruit, nonflowering
angiosperm
a flowering plant that produces seeds within a fruit
ferns, horsetails, club moses
seedless, vascular plants
gymnosperms, angiosperms
vascular seed plants
rhizoid
a rootlike structure in nonvascular plants that holds the plants in place and helps plants get water and nutrients
rhizome
an underground stem from which new leaves and roots grow
pollen
the tiny granules that contain the male gametophyte of seed plants
pollination
the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures to the female structures of seed plants
conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, gnetophytes
examples of gymnosperms
monocots and dicots
two classes of angiosperms
xylem
the type of tissue in vascular plants that provides support and conducts water and nutrients from the roots
phloem
the tissue that conducts food in vascular plants
sepal
in a flower, one of the outermost rings of modified leaves that protect the flower bud
petal
one of the ring or rings of the usually brightly colored, leaf-shaped parts of a flower
stamen
the male reproductive structure of a flower that produces pollen and consists of an anther at the tip of a filament
pistil
the female reproductive part of a flower that produces seeds and consists of an ovary, style, and stigma
ovary
in flowering plants, the lower part of a pistil that produces eggs in ovules
How do flowers help plants?
Flowers help plants reproduce.