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142 terms

American Cultures Final

words and stuff
STUDY
PLAY
Middle Passage
a voyage that brought Africans to the West Indies and North America to be enslaved
Dehumanization
the process of breaking down a person so they feel that they are not human
Fugitive Slave Act
let any slave that escaped be recaptured and taken back to the South
Underground Railroad
a system of routes along which runaway slaves were helped to escape to Canada and free states
Abolitionist
someone who fought against slavery
Secession
when the southern states withdrew from the northern states to form the confederacy
Union
the group of states that did not succeed from the USA
Confederacy
a confederation formed in 1861 by southern states who succeed from the Union
Battle of Gettysburg
the turning point battle of the civil war from July 1-3
Abraham Lincoln
the 16th president who freed the slaves
Emancipation Proclamation
an executive order issued by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863 freeing slaves behind confederate lines
13th Amendment
freed all slaves and outlawed all slavery
Reconstruction
the period of rebuilding After the civil war in the united states
Black Codes
discriminatory laws against Africans
Sharecropping
a system in which landowners give farm workers land, see and tools in return for part of their crops
Freedman's Bureau
a federal agency set up to help black people after the civil war
Jim Crow
a person who created southern laws to separate blacks from whites
Stereotype
a preconceived notion about a race
Push Factor
a factor that makes a person want to leave an area/country
Pull Factor
a factor that attracts people to another country
Ellis Island
the immigration center on the East where immigrants entered the USA
Urban
an area with high population and diversity. often a city
Urbanization
the growth of cities
Rural
area with low population and farms
Tenement
a multifamily urban home usually over crowded and unsanitary
The Jungle
a novel about the dangerous and unhealthy conditions of the meatpacking industry during that time (1906)
Edwin L. Drake
he used a steam engine to get oil; first to practice drilling
Thomas Edison
established first research lab, incandescent light bulb, made urban travel cheep
Lewis Latimer
helped Alexander Graham Bell create light bulb and was said to be the real inventor (African American)
Alexander Graham Bell
created the telephone and worked on light bulb
George Pullman
build a manufacture for sleepers (cars on a railroad) and a town
Andrew Carnegie
created vertical and horizontal integration (a way of thinking), a steel company and one of the richest men to live
John D. Rockefeller
richest man ever; monopolized oil industry
Industrial Revolution
a major change in the US from farms to factories
Natural resource
a material that comes from the earth
Steel
remaining carbon from iron
Triangle Factory Fire
a large fire that broke out in a clothing factory that really started worker unions
Nationalism
a devotion to the interests and culture of ones nation
Militarism
the policy of building up armed forces in aggressive preparation for war and their use as a tool of diplomacy
Alliances
the countries that were in agreement to be in peace and help each other in time of war
Allied Powers
the group of nations-led by Great Britain, France, Russia and the US-that opposed the Central Powers in WWI
Imperialism
the policy of extending a nations authority over other countries by economic, political or military means
Central Powers
the group of nations-led by Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire-that opposed the Allies in WWI
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
the heir to the Austrian throne who was assassinated
Trench Warfare
a battle field strategy where opposing sides attacked each other from a system of dithces
U-Boat
German word for submarine
Lusitania
a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915
Zimmerman Note
a message sent by Germany telling Mexico they would help them reclaim land from the US if the US entered the war
Propaganda
a kind of biased communication designed to influence peoples thoughts and actions
Woodrow Wilson
28th President of the United States
Progressive
an early 20th century movement trying to return control of government to people, restore economic opportunity and correct mistakes in American history
Political Machine
well organized political organization that controls election results by awarding jobs and other favors in exchange for votes
Suffrage
the right to vote
19th Amendment
gave women the right to vote
Alice Paul
woman's suffrage leader who helped form the National Woman's Party
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for women's rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the United States
Conservation
the planned management of natural resources, protecting wildness and development for the common good
Ida B. Wells
Women activist who lead the protest against lynching
KKK
(Ku Klux Klan) an organization that used terrorist tactics to restore white supremacy
The Great Migration
a large scale migration of African Americas from the south to the Northern cities
The Harlem Renaissance
a time of rebirth in African American culture that started in Harlem, New York during the 1920s
W.E.B. Du Bois
demanded complete equality for Blacks and helped start the NAACP
Booker T. Washington
Influential black educator and leader. Said black could be social separated with whites, but together on other issues
Marcus Garvey
led the Universal Negro Improvement Association and his "back to Africa" movement
UNIA
universal negro improvement association; founded by Marcus Garvey to end racism through separation of races
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; an organization that promoted full racial equality
Langston Hughes
leading poet of the Harlem Renaissance. He wrote "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" and "My People"
Al Capone
United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during Prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)
Prohibition
the banning of the manufacture, sale and possession of alcohol from 1920-1933
Bootleggers
a person who smuggled alcohol into the US during Prohibition
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Weakness of Treaty of Versailles
made Germany admit to starting war and humiliated them:::did not include Russia who became determined to get territory back:::ignored the needs of colonized people who wanted same rights as people in the west
Al Capons Childhood
respectable parents, dropped out of school in 6th grade, lived in a tenement, born in 1899
Al Scarface
made a rude comment to a girl and her brother cut his face
Al Businesses
organized crimes, bootlegging, speakeasies, gangs and mobs
Al Jury
juries knew if they convicted him they would die
St. Valentines Day Massacre
1929, very violent, Al's men went and killed four of Al's enemies
Al Finally Convicted of..
tax evasion
Al Death
cardiac arrest
Espionage and Sedition Act
Two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against US participation in WWI
Flu Pandemic
a global outbreak of influenza in 1918
Madame C.J. Walker
leading African American entrepreneur who was one of the first women in the United States to become a millionaire
Rent Parties
parties thrown at ones home to help make money to pay rent. often during Harlem
Changes in Fashion for Women
heels, shorter skirts, skin color stockings, flapper dresses
Double Standard
a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women
Opportunities at Work for Women
offices, stores, factories, 10 million women earning their own
Changing Families
dropped birth rate, birth control made legal, equality in marriage, children worked less
369th Infantry Regiment
most famous African American regiment which earned the Croix de Guerre for their bravery in fighting for France
Why did support for Prohibition dwindle?
Most people liked to drink and they saw it did more bad than good
Shellshock
Mental injuries caused by the stress of war
Impact war had on young soldiers?
They start out hopeful and think war will be heroic. Then they start fighting and become killers. Battle field becomes home and grave.
Dead Rooms
rooms where dying soldiers would go if they had no hope of living
Alliance System
when two or more countries enter an agreement to defend one another
Trip from US to Europe and dangers
2 week trip. being shot down by submarines
Why were letters home encouraged?
so soldiers wouldnt get home sick
Why were letters heavily censored?
they didnt want secrets getting out or people knowing where they were
Goal of UNIA
gain equality and respect for blacks
Why did America join WWI?
Because of Lusitania being blown up by German subs. 128 Americans died
Muckraker
journalist who wrote about corrupt side of business and public life
Initiative
a bill made by the people rather than law makers
Referendum
a vote on an initiative
Recall
let voters remove officials from elected positions before their terms are up
Issues immigrants in US faced?
assimilation, americanization, housing, jobs, money, language
How did Great Migration contribute to Harlem Ren?
blacks headed north and to large cities such as Harlem so everyone was together in one place
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBious differ?
Washington wanted things still separate in some ways but not in others he wanted everyone to stop working. DuBios wanted them to go to collage and get jobs in the goverment
Primary Source
written during the time being studied
Secondary Source
Text and/or artifacts that are not original, but written from something original (biographies, magazine articles, research papers).
When did Civil War start?
1861
When did Civil War end?
1865 confederacy surrendered
Bull Run
1861
south won
Hampton Roads
1862
draw. first iorn clad
Antietam
1862
south won
Ft. Wagner
1863
south won
Stonewall Jackson
led south, died during one of battles
Ulysses S. Grant
led north, won the war
Robert E. Lee
led south, was at offical surrender
Carla Baton
union nurse, founded Red Cross
Jefferson Davis
president of confederacy, didnt want to be at war
Conscription
drafting citizens for milatary
Gettysburg Adress
speach by lincoln thanking those who gave lives at Gettysburg
Appomattox court House
Where Lee surrendered to Grant in 1865
John Wilkes Booth
assasinated Lincoln in 1865
Consequences of CW
assasination, goverment controlled by citizens, income tzx, debt, north ritcher, free slaves, segratgation, draft, land destroyed, 2% population dead, 8% casulaties
Proplems faced CW
reunitng nation, status of free slaves, what would replace slavery
Lincoln Goals
wanted nation as one (leader goal) and slavery gone (personal goal)
Lincoln and Slaves
willing to free all, none or some of the slaves to keep nation together
Migrate
the movement of a large group of people from one area to antoher
When did Great Migration start?
1916
Methods to draw people north?
labor agents passed out train passes to some, adds, success stories
Cost of Journey north
started at 2 cents and then rose to 24 cents (per mile)
National Urban League
1911, helped blacks transition from rural to urban cities
Red Summer 1919
black kids went swimming in white area and stoned. black man arrest but no white man. riot started. 38 people died. 1000 people left homelless.
Schools Miserable
strick rules and physical punishment
Kindergarten created
child care for employed mothers
% at School
62% of whites and 34% of blacks
Voter Restrictions
regersting to vote. had to pass. made harder for blacks. grandfather clause and tax
Plessy v. Ferguson
court case that tested Jum Crow laws. ruled as separate but equal.
Suffragist
a person who fights for a women to have the right to vote
Womens Christian Temperance Union
largest temperance group
Speakeasies
illegal establishemtnts that served alcohol run by gangsters
Bathtub Gin
illegal alcohol made by small families