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Terms in this set (71)

-Interventions that incorporate principles of self control (enhancing beliefs in personal efficacy) and that muster motivation can be successful in changing exercise habits
Transtheroretical model of behavioral change (stages of change model) is useful for increasing physical activity
-Interventions designed to increase and maintain physical activity that are matched to stage of readiness are more successful than interventions that are not
-When exercise intervention promotes personal values, such as regaining fitness, it can be especially successful
-Factors that affect the adoption of exercise are not the same as those that predict long term maintenance of an exercise program
-Believing that physical activity is important predicts invitation of an exercise program, whereas barriers, such as no time or few places to get exercise, predict maintenance

-Family based interventions (induce family members to be more active), worksite interventions, text messaging show success in getting people to exercise
-Relapse prevention techniques increase long term adherence to exercise programs

-Incorportating exercise into a more general program of health lifestyle change can be beneficial as well
-Motivation to engage in one health behavior can spill over into another
-Linking health habits to each other in a concerted effort to address risk can work
-Setting personal goals for exercise can improve commitment, and forming explicit implementation intentions regarding exactly when and how to exercise facilitates practice as well
-Planning when to exercise can facilitate the link between intention and actual behavior
-Most diet change is through cognitive behavioral interventions
-Include self monitoring, stimulus control, and contingency contracting, coupled with relapse prevention tenchiques for high risk for release situations, such as parties
-Drawing on social support for making a dietary change and increasing one's sense of self efficacy are two critical factors for improving diet
-Motivational interveiwing is also helpful in getting people to increase their fruit and vegetable intake and otherwise improve their diets
-Training in self regulation, including planning skills and formation of explicit behavioral intentions can improve dietary adherence
-Implementation intentions regarding when, where, and what food will be consumed can also help people bring snacking under intentional control, making it possible for them to reduce the consumption of unhealthful snacks

-Family interventions are helpful since eating meals together promotes better eating habits
-When all family members are committed to and participate in dietary change, it is easier for a target family member to do so as well

-Community interventions aimed at dietary change have been undertaken (nutrition education campaigns in supermarkets have shown success)
-Tailoring dietary interventions to ethnic identity and making them culturally and linguistically appropriate may achieve particularly high rates of success
-Researchers are moving toward interventions that are cost effective to alter behavior related to diet and exercise, rather than large CBT interventions
-Social engineering where schools ban snack foods, and make school lunch programs more nutrition also help
-CBT
-Self Monitoring: trained to keep careful records of what they eat, when they eat it, how much they eat, and where they eat it
-This record defines the behavior, makes clients more aware of their eating patterns, and can lead to beginning efforts to lose weight
-Stimulus Control: trained to modify the stimuli in their environment that have elicited and maintained their overeating and to take steps to modify their food consumption
-Controlling Eating: gain control over the eating process itself
-Self Reinforcement: rewarding oneself for success
-Controlling Self Talk: cognitive restructuring
-Participants are urged to identify the maladaptive thoughts they have regarding weight loss and to substitute positive self instruction
-The formation of explicit implementation intentions and a strong sense of self efficacy (belief that one will be able to lose weight) predicts weight loss
-Goal of these aspects of interventions is to increase a sense of self determination, which can enhance intrinsic motivation to continue diet modification and weight loss
-To help stress: mindfulness training and commitment theory
-Many programs include training in eliciting effective support from families, friends, and coworkers

-Relapse prevention techniques are incorporated into treatment programs, including matching treatments to the eating problems of particular clients, restructuring the environment to remove temptation, rehearsing high risk situations for release, and developing coping strategies to deal with high risk situations

-CBT programs:successful
-Programs that emphasize diet modification self direction are particularly successful
-Interventions with children and adolescents show good results when parents are involved
-Many programs have used the stages of model
-Interventions to move people from the pre contemplation tot eh contemplation stage center on changing attitudes, emphasizing the adverse health consequences of smoking and the negative social attitudes that most people hold about smoking
-Motivating a readiness to quite may increase a sense of self efficacy that one will be able to do so, contributing further to readiness to quit
-Moving people from contemplation to action requires that the smoker develop implementation intentions to quit, including a timetable for quitting, a program for how to quit, and an awareness of he difficulties associated with quitting
-Moving people to the action phase employs many of the cognitive behavioral techniques that have been used to modify other health habits

-Ex smokers are more likely to be successful over the short term if they have a supportive partner and non smoking supportive friends
-Presence of smoke in one's social network is a hindrance to maintenance and a significant predictor of relapse
-Stress management training is helpful for successful quitting
-Teaching smokers how to relax in situations in which they might turn to smoke provides an alternative method for coping with stress or anxiety
-Lifestyle rebalancing through changes in diet and exercise also helps people cut down on smoking or maintain abstinence after quitting
-Image is also important in helping people stop
-People who have a strong sense of themselves as nonsmokers do better in treatment

-Adolescents: self determination theory: since adolescents often being smoking to shore up their self image with a sense of autonomy and control, self determination theory targets those same cognitions but from the opposite vantage point. They target the behavior of stopping smoking instead
-Relapse prevention techniques are incorporated into smoking cessation programs
-Important because the ability to remain abstinent shows a steady month by month decline
-Begin by preparing people for withdrawal
-Focuses on the ability to manage high risk situations that lead to a craving for cigarettes and on coping techniques for dealing with stressful interpersonal situations
-Smoking shows absence violation effect whereby a single lapse reduced perceptions of self efficacy, increases negative mood, and reduces beliefs that one will be successful in stopping smoking
-Inattentiveness: patients do not have the opportunity to finish their explanation of concerned before the provider begins the process of diagnosis
-Use of Jargon: jargon filled explanations may be used to keep the patient from asking too many questions or from discovering that the provider actually is not certain what the patient's problem is
-Baby talk: practitioners may underestimate what their patients will understand about an illness and its treatment, they may resort to baby talk and simplistic explanations
-Nonperson Treatment: depersonalization of the patient
-May be employed at particularly stressful moments to keep the patient quiet and to enable the practitioner to concentrate. Also provides emotional protection for the provider. It is difficult for the provider to work in a cantle state of awareness that his or her every action influences someone's state of health and happiness
-Stereotypes of patients: physicians give less info, are less supportive, and demonstrate less proficient clinical performance with black and Hispanic patients and patients of low SES than is true for more advantaged patients
-When person is seen by a physician of the same race or ethnicity, satisfaction with treatment tends to be higher
-Many physicians have negative perceptions of the elderly
-Sexism
-Female physicians conduct longer visits, ask more questions, make more positive comments, and show more nonverbal support such as smiling and nodding
-Patients who are regarded as seeking treatment for depression, anxiety, or other forms of psychological disorder also evoke negative reactions from physicians
-Physicians prefer healthier patients to sicker ones and prefer acutely ill to chronically ill patients
-Chronic illness can also increase a physician's distress over having to give bad news
-Patients Contributions to Faulty Communication: many patients do not understand important details about the illness or treatment
-Extra time and care may be needed to communicate this vital information to older patients
-How Patients Compromise Communication:
-Characters contribute to poor communication with providers:
-Neurotic patients often present an exaggerated picture of their symptoms, compromising a physician's ability to gauge the seriousness of a patient's condition
-When patient is anxious, their learning can be impaired
-Anxiety makes it difficult to focus attention and process incoming information and retain it
-Lack of intelligence or poor cognitive functioning impedes the ability to play a consumer role
-Patients for whom the illness is new and who have little prior information about the disorder also have difficult comprehending their disorders and treatments
-Patient Attitudes Toward Symptoms
-Interactive Aspects of the Communication Problem: patient provider interaction does not provide the opportunity for feedback to the provider
-Learning is fostered more by positive than by negative feedback, positive feedback tells on what one is doing right, whereas negative feedback may tell one what to stop doing but not necessarily what to do instead
-Because providers get more negative than positive feedback, this situation is not conducive to learning