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100 terms

Biology Final

STUDY
PLAY
The amount of light and temperature are examples of what type of factors? (1)
to respond
What is homeostasis? (1)
the ability to maintain an internal environment
What atoms make up one molecule of water? (2)
hydrogen and oxygen
Why does ice float on water? (2)
it has a lower density
A substance with a pH of 6 is called a ________? (2)
base
If a reaction in one direction releases energy, the reaction in the opposite direction does what? (2)
absorbs energy
What is the term used to describe the energy needed to get a reaction started? (2)
activation energy
The following is a food chain: algae > Zooplankton > Small fishes > Squid > Shark. What are algae called? (3)
producer
What is nitrogen fixation? (3)
convert nitrogen to ammonia
What element is most likely to be a limiting nutrient in a freshwater pond? (3)
phosphorus
What cell structure controls many of the cell's activities? (7)
nucleus
Which of the following is NOT found in the nucleus: cytoplasm, nucleolus, chromatin, DNA?(7)
cytoplasm
Which organelle breaks down compounds into small particles that the cell can use? (7)
lysosomes
Which of the following is an organ of the digestive system: stomach, nerve tissue, muscle cell, epithelial tissue? (7)
stomach
What is the thin flexible barrier around a cell called? (7)
cell membrane
What do prokaryotes lack? (7)
nucleus
What term refers to cells having different tasks in an organism? (7)
cell specialization
What are the products of the light-dependent reactions? (8)
ATP
What part of the ATP molecule must the bonds be broken to form an ADP molecule? (8)
phosphate group
List the three things that affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs? (8)
a shortage of sunlight, water, temperature
What is the starting molecule for glycolysis? (9)
glucose
During one turn, the Krebs cycle produces what molecule? (9)
citrise acid
Breathing heavily after running a race is your body's way of doing what? (9)
recycling oxygen
Name the stage of cellular aerobic respiration that takes place in the cytoplasm. (9)
citric acid production
At what phase of the cell cycle is a cell's DNA replicated? (10)
interphase
Cancer is a disorder in which some cells have lost the ability to do what? (10)
control cell growth
What is a tumor? (10)
uncontrolled cell growth
What did Mendel conclude about how traits are inherited? (11)
genetic code
Why did Thomas Hunt Morgan choose fruit flies in his study of genetics? (11)
reproduce quickly
What does the principle of dominance state? (11)
something is always at the top
What is incomplete dominance? (11)
case in which allele is not completely dominant
What did Griffith observe when he injected heat-killed disease causing bacteria and live harmless bacteria into mice? (14)
did nothing
Which type of RNA functions as a blueprint of the genetic code? (14)
mRNA
What are HOX genes? (14)
control differtions of cells and tissues
Describe transcriptions? (14)
process by which DNA copies messages to mRNA
In eukaryotic cells, where is the DNA located? (14)
in the nucleus
What are anticodons? (14)
a group of 3 bases RNA molecule, that are complementary to an mRNA codon
What happens during the process of translation? (14)
the cell uses information from mRNA to produce proteins
What do HOX genes determine? (14)
determine an animals basic body plan
What was Lamarck's theory of evolution? (15)
he proposed that be selective use of issues
When lions prey on a herd of antelope, some of the antelope are killed and some escape. Which part of Darwin's concept of natural selection might be used to describe this situation? (15)
survival of the fittest
How did Darwin view the fossil record? (15)
a detailed chart of evolution
List three concepts of the modern theory of evolution. (15)
decent with modification, natural selection, competion among members of a population
What contribution was made by Charles Lyell? (15)
helped scientists recognize that the earth was billions of years old
What is an adaptation according to Darwin? (15)
an inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chance of survival
What contribution did Thomas Malthus make to Darwin's theory of evolution? (15)
darwin saw that was malthus was correctly identifing things
What did Darwin's theory of evolution suggest happened to species over time? (15)
evolved
Traditional classifications tend to take into account primarily what? (18)
similarities in body shape
How can the degree of relatedness be determined between a cow and yeast? (18)
by genes
Organisms in the kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were previously grouped in a kingdom called ______________. (18)
protists
Why do biologists use a classification system to group organisms? (18)
to study the diversity of life
What is binomial nomenclature? (18)
the assigning of a two-part scientific name
Animals that are warm-blooded have body hair, and produce milk are grouped into what class? (18)
mammal
What do scientists consider when they perform cladistics analysis? (18)
they identify those characteristics of evolutionary innovation
What do all organisms have in common? (18)
common ancestor
List the four multicellular kingdoms. (18)
monera, protista, fungi, plantae
Which kingdom contains heterotrophs with cell walls of chitin? (18)
fungi
What is DNA? (19)
deoxiribo nucleic acid
List three ways humans can use bacteria to their benefit. (19)
they are used in the production of food and drinks, digesting petroleum, synthesize drugs and chemicals
What are decomposers? (19)
organism that breaks down and obtains dead organic matter
What does a typical virus contain? (19)
DNA or RNa surrounded by a protein coat
What are retroviruses? (19)
viruses that contain RNA as their genetic info
A prion is a virus like particle that contains only what? (19)
protein
What are multicellular protists and unicellular protists grouped together? (20)
they are two similar to be different kingdoms
List three products produced from algae. (20)
thickners, drugs, chemicals
In an amoeba, what do you call the small cavity within the cytoplasm that stores food? (20)
food vacuole
What is an algal bloom? (20)
a large mass of algae
What are the characteristics of a fungus? (21)
cell walls of chitin
How do most fungi reproduce? (21)
both sexually and asexually
How are the Stinkhorn's spores dispersed? (21)
flies carry them away
List the characteristics of an animal. (26)
multicellular, eukaryotic heterotroph, whose cells lack cell walls
What is a blastula? (26)
hollow ball of cells
List the two body forms of sponges. (26)
radial and bilateral
How do producing gemmules benefit a sponge? (26)
they can survive tough environments
How do cnidocytes help a cnidarian survive? (26)
they sting the prey
In jellyfishes, how does the medusa stage reproduce? (26)
both sexually and asexually
Name one trend in animal evolution. (26)
cell specialization, body cavity, bilateral symmetry
What is an animal called whose mouth is formed from the blastopore? (26)
protostome...
What are the specialized cells that use flagella to move a steady current of water through a sponge? (26)
choanocyte
In free-living flatworms, what organ pumps food into the digestive cavity? (27)
pharynx
In a Pseudocoelom, what does the mesoderm partially line? (27)
body cavity
List characteristics of the roundworms. (27)
unsegmented, with two opening
What causes the disease elephantiasis? (27)
filarial worms
In annelids, what structure eliminates nitrogen-containing wastes? (27)
nephridia
What is the defining characteristic of the annelids? (27)
segmented bodies, true coelom
Name the class of annelids that are external parasites. (27)
leeches
What do earthworm tunnels provide passage for? (27)
digestive tract
What are the functions of a chordates vertebral column? (30)
enclose and protect the spinal chord
What phylum do lancelets belong to? (30)
vertebrata
What type of circulatory system do fish have? (30)
closed circulatory system
What types of drugs slow down the activity of the central nervous system? (35)
depressants
What structure in the ear is filled with fluid and lined with tiny hair cells? (35)
cochlea
Name the region of the brain that recognizes hunger. (35)
hypothalomos
Name the process by which organ systems maintain a relative constant internal environment. (35)
homeostasis
What body system does alcohol immediately affect? (35)
central nervous system
Name the parts of the axial skeleton. (36)
skull, spine, rib cage
What is the function of cells called osteoclasts? (36)
they secrete old bone marrow
Name three parts of the integumentary system (36)
skin, hair, nails
Name three functions of bones in the human skeletal system. (36)
protect, gives structure, movement
What are the two layers of the skin? (36)
epidermis, dermis