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Terms in this set (77)
Causes of WW1
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism
Military: armed forces
Idea of building strong armed forces to prepare for war (in case there is a possible war somewhere in the future, basically so if something happens that country is prepared instead of being surprised and unprepared.)
If one nation increases its military strength: the country's rivals feel threatened, and they build up their own military in response. It will eventually lead to an Arms Race.
An Arms Race is a competition between nations for military superiority.
Naval Arms Race
British Royal Navy is the strongest navy in the world
Germany expands the High seas Fleet
1906 Britain responds and builds the H.M.S. Dreadnaught
Most powerful battleship yet created in history at this point (enormous)
Naval arms race between Britain and Germany
A military treaty between two or more nations that guarantees mutual protection (the idea that you have someone looking after you and you look after them in return)
Causes: offers more military protection
Effects: if country a and country b have an alliance and country C attacks country b then country a would have to come to country b's aid even if country a has not problem with country c.
Between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy in 1884
1907 between France, Great Britain, and Russia
Eastern Europe small regions that were always fighting with one another. Russia is connected to Serbia who in turn is connected to Great Britain and France. when archduke franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Serbia by a Serbian nationalist it set off a chain of events that started WW1
The political, military, or economic domination of one country by another. Nations are getting overconfident by beating smaller nations and they start to think that they can take on other big world powers. Causes a competition for power. World powers compete for the largest empire and the best resources in Africa, Asia and the pacific, an effect of this is War.
feeling of patriotism and pride for one's country, puts the success of their country over everything else, want your country to be #1 even at the cost of your own life.
Germany and France: Rivals in Central Europe
Germany is developing their military and naval strength in the years leading up to WW1 basically flexing their military power in the other country's faces.
Germany invades France
All Germany wants is a strip of land called the Alsace-Lorraine which is a resource rich region in France
France is humiliated
France vows revenge on Germany
Desire for self-government and Independence (fighting for independence for another country) only applies to Europe
The Balkans: region in eastern Europe (near Russia, Austria-Hungary and the ottoman empire)
Serbia: wants freedom from Austria-Hungary Serbia very much wanted their country to be free from Austria - Hungary
Bulgaria: wants protection from Austria-Hungary
The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated
He was the Heir to the Austrian-Hungarian throne (prince)
The people in Austria-Hungary disliked Archduke Franz Ferdinand
he was killed in the Balkans
he was killed by a Serbian nationalist
he was a member of "the black hand"
Secret society in Serbia who were fighting for Serbian independence they want their freedom from Austria-Hungary
Summer of 1914
July: Austria-Hungary sends ultimatum to Serbia
Austria wants to control Serbia
Needs to silence the Serbian independence movement
Serbians refuse ultimatum (final warning)
July 28: Austria declares war on Serbia
July 29: Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary
August 1: Germany declares war on Russia
August 3: Germany declares war on France, marches through Belgium
August 4: Britain declares War on Germany
The great (WW1) war begins
German strategy to avoid a two-front war against France and Russia.
Purpose of the Schlieffen Plan
Quick victory against France in the west before attacking Russia in the East
Steps of the Schlieffen Plan
Step I: Step I: Invade Belgium
France-German border: heavily fortified because the France and German relations were not the best.
Solution: France-Belgium boarder: Far less forts on the FB boarder then the FG boarder. Belgium: small neutral nation unprepared for war.
Step 2: Defeat France in the west
Invade France through Belgium
Far fewer French forts on the French Belgium border.
Step 3: Capture Paris
Russia attacks Germany Early
Great Britain's troops arrive in France early
Belgian army fights harder
NO quick Victory
Was the Triple Entente
Includes Great Britain, France, Russia and 21 other nations
Japan Blocks Pacific and Asian trade routes to Germany
Was the Triple Alliance
Includes: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and the ottoman Empire
In 1915 Italy refuses to fight and joins the allied Powers
United States: Joins the allied powers in 1917
Mexico and Latin America declines invitation to join the central powers 1917
Front: Region in which a war is fought
Location: Western Europe:
Countries Fought in: Belgium France Italy
Location: Eastern Europe and the Middle East
Countries Fought In:
Fall 1914 Western Front
August: Germany's Schlieffen Plan Fails
the allies halt German army within 15 miles of Paris
Battle of the Marne
Allied Victory (technically because Germany does not achieve their goal, the goal for Germany was to get Paris
Stops German Advance
Boosts Allies' confidence
both sides realize that at least in France they are =
Stale mate in the western front
Objective: to push forward, gain land over the enemy
people are constantly dying
Stalemate: both sides are equally matched and military deadlock follows
people are dying though because there are constant attempts to try and break the stalemate
Makes people realize that Germany's army is the best in the world because Germany took both France and Great Britain on and the two opposing sides are equally matched.
Central powers offensive
allied powers defensive
Stalemate on the Western frount/ Trench Warfare
Allied and central powers
Armies in france are equally matched (G.B. & F vs. G)
Neither side has an advantage
Deadlock: battle lines do not change once you have a stalemate. You need to find a well made shelter or else your defense is slowly going to chip away until it is gone. solution = trenches: both sides dug long trenches and tunnels for protection.
Reasons for Trench warfare:
1. Technology: need protection from more accurate weapons
2. Need permanent protection because of the stalemate so that your defense would not slowly be chipped away.
Because the battle lines are more permanent you need more permanent protection.
Combat in which armies fight from trenches facing each other. Weapons and faster more accurate weapons come out of trench warfare because you have to find new ways to kill people in their trenches
Troops: use trenches for protection
Goal: assault and overtake enemy trenches
Over he top: command to leave trench and capture enemy trench
No-Mans-land: dangerous open ground between trenches
Shelling: artillery barrages (attacks) on enemy trenches.
a new form of technology that emerged fro trenches was barbed wire: best defense against barbed wire were tanks.
battle of Verdun
Feb-Dec 1916 Battle of Verdun: German attempt to end the stalemate/break through the deadlock
Ten month German offensive in France (Germany is trying to push through the allied lines and end the stalemate and capture Paris. Germany got in the mindset that to end the war Germany needs to defeat France and to defeat France they needed to capture Paris
Allies: France and Great Britain
Central Powers: Germany
Results: Stalemate continues
Severly weakens the French Army (all the deaths of the battle)
540,000 French killed
430,000 Germans killed
Just about a million dead in a battle in France that only lasted 10 months, countries are so stubborn they refuse to give up use their dead countrymen as an excuse to keep going.
no advantage gained by either side: shows that the German attempt to end the stalemate fails.
Battle of the Somme
July- November 1916
Five month allied offensive in France: trying to get the Germans out of France and hopefully back to Germany
Allies: France 20% and Great Britain 80%
French: weekend after Verdun
End Stalemate force Germany to retreat and leave France
Only 12 km gained by the Allies
58,000 British killed the first day
by the end of the battle
420,000 British killed
500,000 German's Killed
In less than a year both sides lost in ten months about 2 million troops combined
First Tanks used: slow and unreliable, not very effective.
United States: Remains Neutral
U.S. shares similar language culture and history with Great Britain
U.S. is home to millions of German and Austrian Immigrants, immigrants who could revolt against America in America
President Woodrow Wilson (beat out Taft's and Roosevelt's party's) says that the U.S. will not ally itself with Russia.
Russia is an Autocratic country = Ruled by one person with absolute power.
people in Russia did not have the right of free speech and were not allowed to vote.
Czar Nicholas 2 was the leader.
U.S. sells weapons supplies and machinery to both allies and central powers
U.S. Bank loan billions to both allies and Central powers
Good because it showed that America was a strong
Britain: Strongest Navy at the time of WW1: Great Britain launches a naval blockade of German Ports in the North sea, as a result of this no supplies can get in an out of Germany.
Food an medicine shortages are happening in Germany
thousands of Civilians die of starvation and illness
(Unterseeboot) Submarine also known as a U-Boat
Goal: Prevent supplies from reaching Great Britain, patrol the atlantic trade route to block America from trading supplies to the allies
Germany attacks ships (evan American) carrying Allied Supplies, Attacked anything even if the civilians are on the ship
Use of U-boats to restrict supplies and resources to the enemy
Germany uses to devastating effect (cant see a U-boat, a fear of the unknown)
Terrorizes Trade in the Atlantic
"Unrestricted Submarine Warfare"
Feb 1915 Germany declares Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
All vessels carrying Allied supplies will be destroyed (so that you can weaken the allies, no supplies)
U.S. responds by saying they will hold Germany responsible for any U.S. Deaths
May 1915 sunk by German U-Boats
British Passenger ship
1200 dead (128 Americans)
Carrying Allied ammunition and supplies (Germany got lucky, they did not know that that ship carried supplies for the allies)
Germany becomes the aggressor in the war
March 1916 Sunk by German U-Boats
French Passenger ship
Sussex Pledge: Germany promises to warn neutral ships before attacking (downside for Germany they have to surface and that gives away the surprise)
Re-election of President Woodrow Wilson
November 1916 President Woodrow Wilson is re-elected.
Wilson Wins the election using the fact that he has kept America out of the war as his campaign slogan.
Germany Decides that it will sink all ships nearing Britain
Germany revokes the Sussex Pledge (1916)
Because if the allies are weakening Germany thinks that it can really quickly win before the U.S. can come in an save the day because it takes a lot of time to train people for war.
Wilson breaks of diplomatic relations with Germany
U.S. doubles the size of army and builds new warships, it becomes clear that the U.S will join the allies the question is when will they join the allies.
Britain intercepts secret note to Mexico from Germany
Arthur Zimmerman: Germany's Foreign Secretary
In the Note Germany urges Mexico to attack the U.S and win back its lost provinces
If the Mexicans go to war against the U.S. then Germany will put their support behind the Mexicans
Germany promises to return all land taken from Mexico
Goal Keep U.s. preoccupied at home so that the U.S. cannot aid the allies in Europe
Mexico Declines the offer to join central Powers
Idea was to create trouble in the American backyard, Germany wanted to distract them
Great Britain send the telegram to America so that America will get mad at Germany and hasted to join the war.
President Wilson sings declaration of war
April 6, 1917
U.S. officially joins the allied powers
Selective Service Act
May 8, 1917
Military Draft: Supported by most Americans
Draft: where the U.S. enlists people to join in the army
1917-1918 Three Million Americans drafted for war
Western front: Stalemate
Eastern front: always moving, mobile
Description of fighting:
No Stalemate: battle lines change
Mobile Warfare:" Less reliance of trenches for protection
Massive Casualties: Millions Dead
1914 Russia joins the Allies
1914-1916 Russia fights Germany and Austria-Hungary (Russia loses over 1 million in the war)
Food an medicine shortages
Russians are discontent with war and royal government
March-November 1917 Russian Revolution
Czar Nicholas 2 driven from power by a group lead by Vladimer Lenin
All the fighting at home leads to Russia withdrawing from the war.
Revolution leads to communist government
Russian Withdrawel form the war
November 1917 Communist party takes control of the Russian government
Vladimir lenin is the leader of the communist government
Russian soldiers desert the war effort to participate in the revolution
the Communist government withdraws from the allied powers
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Peace treaty between Russia and Germany
Iron ore (recourse)
Russia officially end participation in WW1
Germany focuses all of its supplies and recourses on the western front
Russian withdrawal = allies desperate for American Aid
America aids the allies
1917 the allied powers are on the verge of collapse they desperately need supplies and men
Russia: withdrew from the War
France: the soldiers refuse to fight
Britain: Running out of supplies and soldiers
United States: Morale is high, big refresher
Jun 1917 U.S. troops arrive in France
AEF (American expeditionary Force)
Led by General John J. Pershing
4 million soldiers in the AEF
Last major German offensive
,march - June 1918
Post Russian Treaty= German troops all moved to the western front
German supplies running low
Last chance to break stalemate on the western front before the Americas come
American Response to German offensive
Jun -November 1918
Battle of Chateau-Thierry (June 1918) Stops the German offensive
Battle of Belleau Wood (July 1918) Pushes Germans back from Marne River
Battle of Argonne Forest (Sept - November 1918) German Battle lines are broken
November 1918 Germany faces invasion from U.S. troops
1918 end of war
Allies = war
fortified by the Americans
weak and starving
Threat of revolution
Kaiser Wilhelm 2 renounces the throne
President Wilson agrees to a ceasefire
November 11, 11 am, 1918
Declaration of war
Preperation for war
Resources (iron, cotton, and timber) companies now produce wartime items
soldiers (need training)
Industry (guns machinery and ammunition)
Men: Millions enlist to serve in the U.S. Army
Women: Hired for Jobs previously held by men women step forward to fill the jobs
Cost of the War
Bonds sold by the U.S. government to support war effort
Symbol of patriotic duty = everyone contributed (shameful not to contribute)
Raised 2/3 of the war cost
U.S. needed to produce supplies for Allies (British and French) as well as supply food for the civilians
Organized food for soldiers an deuropean civilians
Rationing: conserving food at home so the rest could be sent to U.S. soldiers
Victory Gardens: Vegtable gardens planted to increase food production
Produce more, eat less
Support for the War
U.S. government need to rally public support for the war (biggest propaganda campaign yet)
Committee on Public Information
Persuade Americans that war = battle for democracy and freedom
Posters adverisments and movies
Greatest Propaganda campaign U.S. had ever seen
Only way a country can go to war is if it has the support of its people.
Some americans opposed entry into the war
Government (not the people) should regulate and control economy
War helps wealthy business-owners making more money because selling to government
War hurts working class the ones that are doing the fighting
1917 Penalties for spying and aiding the enemy
Penalties for antiwar writing or speeches 1918
Germany reconizes war is lost
Oct 1918 Germany does not want the fighting to come into Germany because they did not want France to take revenge and destroy Germany as Germany had destroyed France
U.S. troops push Germany out of france and the allied powers are on the brink of an invasion
Germany is exhausted by the war and start to blame the government for the death
The German Navy revolts at home.
Kaiser abdicates the throne
Germans revolt against the Kaiser starts with the navy but soon almost the entire military is out for the Kaisers blood
President Wilson says he will only negotiate if the Kaiser gives up the throne
Kaiser Wilhelm 2 flees to Holland because he saw what happened to the Russian royal family and he did not want that to happen to him and his family.
November 11, 11 am 1918
Armistice = ceasefire (not a peace treaty just means that the fighting stops)
Politically speaking there is still a lot to be worked out
The Lost Generation
Generation of men and women who fought in WW1
10 million killed in battle
20 million wounded
soldiers no longer trusted government
Caught in the crossfire
Dead from starvation, battle and disease
7 million dead throughout the world
Physically looks completely destroyed, countryside is in ruins
Possible revolution (looking at Russia and thinking about following them)
Revolution against government to create a new government (eventually leads into civil war)
starvation and disease (miserable)
millions of civilians are homeless
Massive outbreak of disease (1918-1919)
5% of world population dies (about 300 million people)
WW1 was devastating but the aftermath of WW1 was worse
Woodrow Wilsons policy for post-WW1 peace
A general plan to make sure that the rest of the world did not get dragged into another war
1. End to secret Agreements (so that if you declare war on someone then you know exactly who is going to come to their aid)
2. Freedom of the seas (everyone should be able to sail through the oceans wherever they wanted, to get rid of trade routes)
3. Arms restrictions (limits on how big a military or a navy could get, so that if everyone is equal strength no one will ever disrupt the balance of power.
4. Peaceful Settlement of Colonial Disputes
5. Self Determination (if colonies wanted to be independent then they should be given their independence)
6. League of Nations
League of Nations
International organization to guarantee peace and independence
Nations wanted to avoid a repeat of pre-WW1 Alliance system
If a war started and it was going to erupt into a world war the league of Nations would step in and try to stop it diplomatically and peacefully
Paris Peace Conference
Meeting that decided what is going to be included in the treaty, meeting of the allied victors (big allied powers that mostly won WW1)
Great Britain, France, U.S. and Italy
U.S. stepped in and helped the Allied powers in a critical time, by signing a peace treaty with Germany, Russia gave up its rights for anything that they might have received. Significance: Creates the treaty of Versailles
French Goals for the Treaty of Versailles (discussed at the Paris Peace conference)
France is still upset about the franco-Prussian war 50 years ago in which Germany took the Alsace-Lorraine (virtual slap in the face to Germany from France)
Claim German colonies in Europe and Africa
Want to ensure that Germany would not ever be a threat to France. Wanted to make sure that Germany could never challenge them again.
Forced Germany to pay war reparations
Total cost Germany had to pay = 300 billion
Punish Germany by publically humiliating the country by making them accept full responsibility for starting the war.
British goals for the Treaty of Versailles discussed at the Paris Peace Meeting
Claim German colonies (pacific)
Destroy Germany's Navy and Army to ensure that Germany could never challenge Great Britain again
Force Germany to pay war reparations
Punish Germany by making Germany accept responsibility for causing WW1
Treaty of Versailles
Most famous and important WW1 peace treaty between Germany and the Allied Powers
In the treaty..........
League of Nations (basically alliance system 2.0, totally different then what Wilson envisioned) If one nation was attacked in the League of Nations, all the other nations would come to their defense.
Germany pays back the cost of the war (300 billion)
German Military and Naval Restrictions: Army no more than 100,000 men shameful to a country who is a prideful nation which leads into their military strength
Navy: No more than 6 battleships at a time (absolutely no U-Boats though)
Germany figured out that no one would really monitor them paying back their money as well as the navy and army thing
Redistribution of German colonies
"War Guilt Clause"
Germany had to accept 100% responsibility for World War One
Humiliation for Germany because they did not start it in any war
Germany was not the Villain
Everyone was in some way responsible for the starting of world war one
U.S. and the Treaty of Versailles
U.S. never signed the Treaty of Versailles or Joins the League of Nations because americans thought that the league of Nations was basically Alliance System 2.0
Since the U.S. did not sign the peace treaty they signed the Knox-Porter Resolution which officially ended the war between U.S. and the Central Powers
Allows the U.S. to lessen economic damage to Germany after treaty of Versailles required Germany to pay back 300 billion dollars in a 50 year period.
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