41 terms

Digestive System

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mechanical digestion
Part of digestion that uses movement and muscles to break down food
chemical digestion
the digestion process in which enzymes are used to break foods into their smaller chemical buiding blocks
Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract
The tube that extends from the mouth to the anus in which the movement of muscles and release of hormones and enzymes digest food
mouth
place where digestion begins at (we use it to chew food and talk)
saliva
watery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands; moisten the food and make it easier to chew
amylase
an enzyme that breaks chemical bonds between sugar monomers in starches
pharynx
a passageway for both air and food
epiglottis
a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing; allows air to pass through the larynx and into the rest of the respiratory system
peristalsis
the contraction of muscles making food going down the esophagus to the stomach
lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
the valve leading from the the esophagus to the stomach; prevents the bolus from going back to the esophagus
heartburn/acid reflux
a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus)
stomach
a large muscular sac for storing food
hydrochloric acid (HCL)
chemical made in the stomach that helps break down food. It is often called stomach acid.
pepsin
an enzyme in the stomach that breaks protein into large peptides
pepsinogen
inactive form of pepsin
mucus
a substance secreted by mucous membranes and glands for lubrication, protection, etc.
peptic ulcer
an ulcer of the mucous membrane lining of the alimentary tract
chyme
a mixture that breaks down food
pyloric sphincter
the valve that takes food from the stomach to the small intestine; prevents the backward flow of food to the stomach
small intestine
reabsorbing nutrients found within your food
duodenum
receive the partially digested foods from the stomach and complete the process of digestion
villi
absorb nutrients in the small intestine
appendix
no role in digestion
appendicitis
inflammation of the appendix
large intestine
reabsorbs water
colon
eliminates toxins from the large intestines, blood and lymph systems
rectum
storage place for feces before they are eliminated
anus
the hole that lets feces out
pancreas
break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
insulin
stimulates formation of glycogen
glucagon
stimulates formation of glycogen
glycogen
one form in which body fuel is stored
Diabetes Type I
insulin deficiency or resistance that leads to hyperglycemia/ little or no insulin produced
Diabetes Type II
overproduction of insulin and your body no longer responds to it
sodium bicarbonate
chemical compound released by the pancreas into the small intestine which neutralizes the acidity of the chyme
liver
produces bile
bile
a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
gallbladder
stores bile
diarrhea
absorption of too much water in the large intestine
constipation
absorption of insufficient water or no water in the large intestine
feces
the waste product expelled from the anus