OAT practice test 1 ?s

proteins can do all of the following except
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fatyields most calories/ gram when consumedimprintingprocess where environmental patterns or objects presented to a developing organism during a brief "critical period" in early life become accepted permanently as elements of their behavior environmentHard-Weinberg Equilibrium needs:random mating, large gene pool, no change in allelic frequency, no natural or sexual selectiondirect transition in pathway of normal blood flowpulmonary veins to left atriumdigestive enzyme elementsdigestive enzymes from pancreas are released va duct into duodenum, peristalsis (smooth muscle contraction that aids digestion), villi in small intestine absorb nutrients into both lymphatic and circulatory systems, release of bile from gall bladder is triggered by hormone cholecystokinin, low pH of stomach is essential for function of ENZYMES that break down proteins into their aain kidneysantidiuretic hormone causes reabsorption of water from collecting tubuleplacenta is derived fromthe chorion and is primarily of fetal origin -amnion: surrounds fetus and amniotic fluid -allantois and yolk sac: give rise to umbilical vessels -chorion: surrounds them all and gives rise to the placentaclimax communitya relatively stable long-lasting community within a given climateto ensure survival of their species, adult animals that don't care for their youngproduce many offspringsite of spermatogenesisseminiferous tubulesmuscle tissuethe sarcoplasmic reticulum regulates the level of Ca2+ within a muscle cellfirst part of photosynthetic process invovlessplitting of water into O2, H2, and e-meiosis can't take place inhaploid cellsevidence of gene control in protein synthesisgene mutation can alter polypeptide amino acid sequenceoxygenated blood is found in which ventricle of the heartleftmotor neurons are characterized by theirparasympathetic activityacrosome of spermpenetrates ovum membrane for fertilizationin pond community, greatest biomass present would consist ofalgae -primary producer since it is a photosynthetic/ chemosynthetic organismgenes that are close together will have a frequency close to0% -genes not linked will have recombination frequency close to 50%exothermic rxnsshift the reaction to the left, causing a dec in product production since heat is added as a product and is therefore lostvol of 1 mol of gas at STP22.4 LKspsolubility equilibrium constant- helps determine which compound will precipitate first in a solution (lower Ksp in the solvent than the impurity results in the solid precipitating from the solution)oxidizing agentspecies that causes another to oxidize (i.e. oxidizing agent itself will be reduced and the oxidized agent will inc its e-).most important factor in determining the chemical properties of an element istotal number of valence e-percent comp problems% comp= (mass of element in compound)/ (total mass of compound) x (100%)lewid acid/ baseacid: electron acceptor (has lone pair of electrons) base: electron donor (lacks lone pair of electrons)spontaneous reactionwhen change in Gibbs free energy is negative, change in Gibbs free energy of reactants will be greater than that of the products, activation energy of the reverse rxn will be greater than the activation energy of the forward reaction, all spontaneous reactions will release energycatalystslower activation energy of reaction by: inc the frequency of collisions bw the reactants, change the relative orientation of the reactants, make a higher percentage of collins effective, donate e- density to the reactants, reduce intramolecular bonding within reactant molecules, speeds up reaction timewater's usage for magnetizingability to be magnetized has to do with an atom's electron configuration, and needs to have unpaired electrons to be able to be magnetized (paramagnetic), but water doesn't have any unpaired electrons (diamagnetic)anhydridescan be reverted to carboxylic acids by exposing them to water, if they aren't symmetric many products can be formed, and if it is symmetric only one product will formin a long carbon chain, one of the carbons has sp2 hybridization meaning that this carbon isdouble bonded to another atomNMR spectroscopy, molecules with neg chemical shifts...are standardized by convention to TMS rather than to an absolute zerooptical activity of enantiomersa compound must either have a single chiral center, or if there are multiple chiral centers then it must be where they don't cancel each other outacetone propertiesit exists as a pair of tautomers and the keto form is more abundant than the enol form, commonly used as a solvent to promote Sn2 and E2 rxns bc it is aprotic and polar, has low boiling point bc it can't form strong intramolecular bonds and has low molecular weightbond length and bond order relationshipas bond length dec, bond order inc -triple bond (highest order)= shortest bond length -double bond (next highest order) = next to shortest bond length -single bond (lowest order) = longest bond lengthconformational isomerschemically identical, differing only in their rotation about a single bonddehydration of an alcoholthis yields an alkene under acidic conditions when it proceeds via the E1 mechanismsp hybridization of carbonmeans we are creating a new hybrid subs hell by combining one s and one p orbital to create 2 new hybridized sp orbitals--> results in a total of 2 sigma bonds; so, these sp hybridized carbons will have a linear geometry and will either have a combo of single and triple bonds or 2 double bondsconverging and diverging lensesconverging: pos focal length, makes object distance seem greater than the image distance (magnifies) diverging: neg focal length, makes object distance seem less than the image distanceconverging lens (convex)creates a real inverted image when the object is beyond the focal point and a virtual upright image when the object is inside the focal pointtotal internal reflectionoccurs when light travels from a medium of higher index of refraction to a medium with a lower index of refraction and with an angle of incidence greater than the critical anglediopterthe unit of measurement of a lens' refractive power (P=1/f)photon energydependent on frequency, calculated by E=hf (plank's constant)(frequency), photon energy dec as wavelength inc as seen in the formula E=hf/ wavelengthphotoelectric effectphenomenon whereby electrons are emitted by a metal that is exposed to light2 waves that are 180 degrees out of phase exhibitdestructive interference2 waves that are 720 degrees out of phase exhibitconstructive interferencewhen two waves are of equal amplitude the resulting displacement iszerosound intensity formula: I=P/Aintensity= power/ areathe wave speed of all harmonics isthe samestanding waves in pipes open at both ends haveantinodes at the ends of the pipestanding waves in strings fixed at both ends havenodes at the ends of the stringsspeed of light in a vacuum formula(3x10^8) m/splane mirrors createvirtual imagesfocal lengthradius of curvature/ 2 --> r/2formula relating object distance, image distance, and focal length1/o + 1/i + 1/f = 2/rbeat frequencyequal to the difference of the 2 frequencies (measured in Hz)observed frequencywhen coming from a source emitting a sound, it is higher if the source is moving toward a stationary observerfundamental harmonichas the longest wavelength and the smallest frequency of all harmonicsthe higher the harmonicthe shorter the wavelengthnodepoint in a standing wave that remains at restantinodepoint in a standing wave that fluctuates at maximum amplitudevirtual imageneg image distancereal imagepos image distance, are in mirrorsmagnification formulam= - image distance/ object distance (-i/o)hooke's lawF= -kx (-spring constant)(displacement from equilibrium)angular frequency of mass on a spring formulaw= (k/m)^1/2angular frequency of mass on a pendulum formulaw= (g/ L)^1/2kinetic energy formulaK= 1/2 (mass)(velocity)^2 --> K= 1/2 (m)(v)^2potential energy formulaU= 1/2 (spring constant)(displacement)^2 --> U= 1/2 (k)(x)^2 U= (m)(g)(h)= mgh (pendulum)calculating resistors or capacitors in seriesRs= R1+R2+R3+R4......Rn Cs= C1+C2+C3...Cncalculating resistors and capacitors in parallelRp= R1/2 +R2/2 +R3/2 +R4/2 ......Rn/2 Cp= C1+C2+C3...CnDC currentflow of charge remains in one directionAC currentflow of charge changes periodicallydirection of currentdirection in which positive charge flowsvoltscurrent x resistance--> iRan object's kinetic energy is greatest atthe equilibrium pointan object's potential energy is greatest atmaximum displacement from equilibriumformula for a period of a mass on a springT= 2pi * (m/k)^1/2formula for a period of a mass on a pendulumT= 2pi * (m/k)^1/2formula for capacitanceC= (charge stored on a plate)/ (potential difference bw plates) --> Q/ Vfaradsunits of capacitanceas plate area inc, what happens to the proportionality of capacitance?increasesas length increasesso does resistanceas cross-sectional area increasesresistance decreasesas temp increasesresistance typically increasesinc resistivityresistance increasesunits of a magnetic fieldTesla (T)what force does a stationary particle in a magnetic field experience?it will experience no forceWhat force will a moving charge experience if it travels parallel or antiparallel to a magnetic field?no force will be experienced if the charge moves parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic fieldunits of voltagejoules/ coulombwhat is the potential difference bw two points on an equipotential line?the potential difference is zeroCoulumb's Law EquationF= (constant)(charge 1)(charge 2)/ (distance)^2what is the formula for the magnetic field created by a long straight wire?B=(permeability of free space) (current) / 2pi (distance from wire)what is the formula for the magnetic field at the center of the loop?B= (permeability of free space) (current)/ 2rhow much work is done on a charge if it's moved in a straight path bw 2 equipotential points?no net work is donein which direction will an electric field vector point around a pos charge?away from the pos chargein which direction will an electric field vector point around a neg charge?towards a neg chargespecific gravitythe ratio of a substance's density to the density of waterpressure formulaP=force/area (P= F/A)formula for workW= (pressure)(change in volume)heat flow out of a system isnegheat flow into a systemposwhen 2 pistons are in a system, what happens to them when a force is applied to one of them?the larger one moves by a smaller distanceviscositymeasure of the internal friction of a fluidwhat happens to viscosity of a liquid when temp inc?decreasesgauge pressurethe pressure in excess of atmospheric pressureadiabatic processone in which no heat flows from the system to its surroundings (or vice versa)2nd law of thermodynamicsthe entropy of a closed system will either inc or remain unchanged --an irreversible process inc the entropy of the universebuoyant force formulaFb= (density of fluid)(g)(volume of object immersed in the fluid)is kinetic energy conserved in a completely elastic collisionyesmomentum is conversed in bothinelastic and elastic collisionstotal mechanical energythe sum of its kinetic and potential energiestotal mechanical energy is considered a constant becausethe only forces acting on that body are conservative and therefore constantcalorie, Btu, Jouleunits of heatdifference bw a calorie and a Caloriecalorie= 1000 of these make up one Calorie (a nutritional term)heat of fusionamount of energy required for a phase change from solid to liquidabsolute zero, freezing point of water, and boiling point of water for K and CK: 0, 273, 373 C: -273, 0, 100formula for momentump= mass x velocityconductionheat transfer that involves a direct transfer of energy from molecule to molecule through molecular collisionsradiationheat transfer involves the transfer of energy by electromagnetic wavesconvectionheat transfer that involves the physical motion of heated materialheat of vaporizationamount of energy required for a phase change from liquid to gasheat gained/ lost during a phase changeQ= (mass)(heat of transformation)= mLisobaric processprocess done at constant pressurea body in translational equilibrium has a net force of?has no net force acting on itif a lever is halved, by how much does the torque inc or dec?it decreases by halfformula for workW= (Force)(distance)(cos theta) -unit of work is Joule (N*m)formula for powerP= Work/ time= W/t -unit of power is Watt (1 Joule/ sec)when calculating torque, which rotation is positive and which is negative?clockwise= pos counterclockwise= negfor rotational equilibrium to occur, the sum of all the torques acting on a body must equalzerotranslational motionmotion where the position of the object's center of mass changes as a function of timeweight is what type of quantity?vector quantity; formula--> W= mgto every force, there is always anequal and opposite forceformulas for initial horizontal and vertical velocitieshorizontal: vcos(theta) vertical: vsin(theta)formula for gravitational potential energy (GPE)U= mgh -units= jouleswhat are the units (MKS) of each of the following: length mass force time work and energy powermeter (m) kilogram (kg) newton (N) second (s) Joule (J) Watt (W)what are the sin and cos values for the following angles: 0 90 30 60 45 180sin: 0, 1, 1/2, (3/2)^1/2, (2/2)^1/2, 0 cos: 1, 0, (3/2)^1/2, 1/2, (2/2)^1/2, -1the sum of 2 vectors is the ______________ of the vectorsresultantformulas for displacement (change in x) avg velocity (change in x/ change in time) avg speed (d/ change in time)difference bw scalar and vector quantityscalar: has magnitude but no direction vector: has magnitude and directionexamples of scalar quantitiesdistance, speed and massexamples of vector quantitiesdisplacement, velocity, and forcewhat happens to an electron that absorbs a photon?it will jump to a higher energy levelwhat happens when an electron jumps from a higher to a lower energy level (orbit)it will emit a photon whose energy equals the difference in energy bw the two levelsdispersionsplitting of white light in a prism is an example of thisdiffractionthe spreading out of light as it passes through a narrow openinglight waves can ________ or ___________ interfere with each otherconstructively and/ or destructivelypolarized lightthe light in which the electric fields of all the waves are oriented in the same direction