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AP Psych, Unit 7 Module 31, Zeller
Terms in this set (45)
the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information
the processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extracting meaning
the process of retaining encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory.)
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory.)
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a secon
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practic
enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.
encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.
encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention
To remember any event, we must...
encode, store, retrieve
Toc focus on this complex, simultaneous processing, one information-processing model, _______, views memories as products of interconnected neural networks
What were the three stages of Atkinson's and Shiffrin's model to explain our memory-forming process
1. first record to-be-remembered info as a fleeting sensory memory
2. process info into short term memory, where we encode ir through rehearsal
3. info movies inro long term memory for later retrieval
What did Baddeley use to challenge Atkinson's model for memory?
Shiffrin's and Atkinson's model focused on how we process what memories?
explicit memories encoded through conscious, effortful processing
Outside Atkinson-Shiffrin stages, what memories are being processed and how?
info skips the conscious encoding track and goes directly into storage - automatic processing - produces implicit memries
Our implicit memories include what?
our procedural memory for automatic skills
without conscious effort you automatically process information about what?
space, time, and frequency
What does sensory memory feed?
our active working memory, recording momentary images of scenes or echoes of sounds
What did Sperling's experiment demonstrate?
auditory stimuli is related to what kind of memory?
What did George Miller propose about short-term memory?
can retain about 7 info bits
Without _____ _____, short-term memories have a limited life
What does working memory depend on?
age and other factors
Who has more working-memory capacity?
young adults (compared to children and adults)
(ability to multitask is greater)
Can several effortful processing strategies boost our ability to form new memories? What are some examples?
yes; chunking, mnemonics, and hierarchies
When do we retain info better?
when our encoding is distributed over time - spacing effect and when we self asses ourselves (testing effect)
Massed practice/cramming produces what?
short-term learning and feeling of confidence, but those who learn quickly forget quickly
Memory researchers have discovered that we process ______ _______ at different levels, and that depth of processing affects our long-term retention
shallow processing and deep processing
levels of processing
intermediate level (words letters or sounds) vs semantically (meaning)
The deeper the processing...
the better our retention
If new info is not meaningful or related to our experience....
we have trouble processing it
How can we avoid memory mismatches?
rephrasing what we hear and see into meaningful terms
Information deemed ____________ is processed more deeply and remains more accesible
"relevant to me"
Recommended textbook explanations
Richard A. Kasschau
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