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Exam 3: Ch. 14 Quizes
Terms in this set (71)
A drug's _____ is its tendency to activate the receptor whereas as drug's _____ is how likely it is to bind with the receptor.
Maribel quit using cigarettes after smoking them for years. Even now, when she sees someone else smoking, she has a strong urge to smoke. This behavior is called _____.
Tina suffers from alcoholism. Her doctor is trying to help her quit drinking. He suggested that she attend weekly therapy and take _____ to help decrease her desire to drink (because it would make her sick after she drank).
Which of the following types of drug would be a strong agonist?
one with high affinity and high efficacy
The gene with the best-documented effect on predisposition to alcohol abuse exerts its effect in what way?
it alters how the liver metabolizes alcohol
What evidence demonstrates predisposition toward drug or alcohol abuse?
siblings of someone with drug addiction also show abnormalities of brain and behavior
Genetic predisposition is most strongly evident for which type of alcohol abuser?
ppl with early-onset alcohol abuse
Of the following, which type of person is more likely than average to abuse alcohol?
someone who shows little effect after moderate drinking
What is the relationship between drug abuse and dopamine?
most abused drugs release dopamine, but not in proportion to addictive potential
What is the effect on the nucleus accumbens after repeated cocaine use?
the nucleus accumbent becomes less responsive to rewarding experiences
What accounts for increased cravings during cocaine abstinence?
increased sensitivity of glutamate synapses to cues for cocaine
What evidence indicates that tolerance is to a large extent learned?
Tolerance is greater in the location where one previously took the drug than elsewhere
In tests of Antabuse effectiveness, why are placebos so effective?
Antabuse is effective mainly by the threat of illness after drinking-- even if placebo, you would still feel this threat
What is the advantage of taking methadone instead of morphine or heroin?
methadone satisfied the craving without seriously disrupting behavior
Who is more likely to suffer from major depression?
Lora who is 25 and has a mother and grandmother with depression
Drugs like Cymbalta and Effexor work to relieve depression by increasing levels of _____.
serotonin and norepinephrine
Jonathon has been diagnosed with bipolar I disorder. Besides medications, his doctors have also suggested that he _____.
try to develop a consistent workout and sleep schedule
On average, how long does a first episode of depression last?
about the same as later episodes
What is one reason why it may be hard to locate genes contributing to depression?
the genes for depression in one population may be rare in another
Relatives of people with late-onset depression have an increased probability of what type of disorder?
The short gene for the serotonin transporter relates to depression only in which people?
ppl who have experienced severe stress
How do SSRIs differ from tricyclic antidepressants?
SSRIs act on just one type of synapse instead of several
What is the disadvantage of using St. John's wort as an antidepressant?
st John's wort decreases the effectiveness of other drugs
If someone starts taking antidepressant drugs, when do behavioral benefits emerge?
two weeks or more after taking the first dose
Which of the following is important for relieving depression?
forming new neurons in the hippocampus
If several patients who did not respond to drug A later improve after switching to drug B, what conclusion, if any, follows?
None of these conclusions follows.
1. Drug B is more effective than drug A.
2. Any switch in drugs increases patients' motivation and therefore helps them recover
3. Some people respond to drug B but not to drug A.
Antidepressant effects resemble those of placebos except for which type of patient?
those with more severe depression
Which treatment acts most rapidly, and which usually has the most lasting benefits?
ECT acts most rapidly, and therapy has the most lasting benefits
Which of these often yields inexpensive relief from depression?
exposure to very bright lights in the morning
Which of these is a common treatment for bipolar disorder?
Kenny has been having thoughts lately that his telephones are sending messages to the government. He is also worried because he can hear a man's voice yelling at him even when he is alone. He will likely be diagnosed with _____.
The season-of-birth effect is the tendency for people born in _____ to have a slightly greater probability of developing schizophrenia than people born at other times of the year.
For a long time, it was thought that excessive _____ activity in certain brain areas was responsible for schizophrenia.
Why is lack of emotional expression considered a "negative" symptom?
the sx refers to the absence of something
Schizophrenia is more common than average in which of the following types of people?
ppl who live in cities
Which of these is a likely conclusion about the role of genetics in schizophrenia?
rare mutations or microdeletions increase probability of schizophrenia
According to the neurodevelopmental hypothesis, what starts schizophrenia?
disorders of brain development before or shortly after birth
What is Toxoplasma gondii?
a parasite that can cause psychiatric disorders
Of these, which is the most likely explanation for the season-of-birth effect?
maternal illness during pregnancy
If schizophrenia is due to abnormal brain development in early life, how can we account for the fact that behavioral symptoms are not apparent until later in life?
a prime area of damage is the prefrontal cortex, which matures very slowly
What is the time course of brain damage in schizophrenia?
Most of the brain damage is present at diagnosis or soon after
What is the effect of antipsychotic drugs on synapses?
they block certain dopamine synapses
Of the following, which is an attempt to decrease tardive dyskinesia?
Use of second-get antipsychotic drugs
Which of the following is NOT an important characteristic of autism spectrum disorder:
Excessive resistance to forming/maintaining a routine
The American Psychiatric Association includes many distinct characteristics as essential to autism spectrum disorder. They include deficits in social and emotional exchange; deficits in gestures, facial expressions, and other nonverbal communication; stereotyped behaviors, such as repetitive movements, resistance to a change in routine, and unusually weak or strong responses to stimuli.
Kori is pregnant. Her doctors have recommended that she consume adequate amounts of _____ either from leafy green vegetables or from vitamin supplements.
Behavioral treatments for autism spectrum disorder attempt to address ______.
the deficits in social behavior and communication
In what way is the genetic basis of autism similar to that of schizophrenia?
in both, many genes contribute
Which of these is commonly observed for children with autism?
eyes usually fail to capture their attention (but if they make eye contact they can hold it)
The probability of autism increases if which of these is true?
the father was much older than average
Which of the following is common for children with autism, at age one year?
the head is 10% larger than average
What dietary supplement during pregnancy decreases the probability of having a child with autism?
What can be safely said about treatment for autism spectrum disorders?
No medical treatment helps with social or communication problems.
Today, psychiatrists use electroconvulsive therapy mostly for patients who have severe depression and ____.
have not responded to antidepressant drugs
Dr. Ashby studies the nervous system and is particularly interested in reinforcing experiences, such as the use of addictive drugs. What part of the brain will be particularly important for Dr. Ashby to study?
Many people with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have a mutation in one of the genes responsible for regulating ____.
Dorinda has been diagnosed with depression. She likely has
activity in her _____.
Rochelle, who has schizophrenia, is experiencing a flare-up of her positive symptoms. Which symptom of schizophrenia is likely to be particularly bothersome now?
Which type of antidepressant blocks the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin?
Alison was given a medication that was supposed to mimic the effect of a neurotransmitter. She was given a(n) _____.
Briana has been diagnosed with bipolar II disorder. She frequently alternates between periods of ____.
depression and hypomania
Who, among the following, is most likely to have biological family members who have a history of major depressive disorder?
Edith, who has had episodes of major depression every few years since her late teens
Fred is an alcoholic who has gotten sober many times and relapsed many times. His health has been badly damaged by his drinking, so in desperation he asks his doctor for a medication that will make him violently sick to his stomach should he drink while taking it. What medication does Fred want to take?
Taking a supplement for which nutrient both decreases the risk of autism spectrum disorder and neural tube defects in the developing fetus?
Risk factors for schizophrenia include ____.
prenatal infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii
An intermediate risk factor is prenatal or childhood infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. People can be exposed to the parasite by handling infected cats, by playing in soil or sand where cats have defecated, or by eating chicken or pork after those animals fed in infected soil. If the parasite infects the brain of an infant or child, brain development is impaired.
Epidemiological studies of autism spectrum disorders consistently indicate that these conditions are more common in ____.
boys than girls
Rich has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. For him, dopamine _____.
release is increased in the basal ganglia
Research on the genetics of schizophrenia suggest that ____.
many cases of schizophrenia arise from new mutations
The first successful treatment for bipolar disorder was _______.
Randal has been using methamphetamine for a while and now finds he needs to use more of the drug to get the same effect. What has happened?
People who have schizophrenia often have _____.
difficulty with abstract thoughts
Janetta is addicted to heroin but wants to quit. She is given a medication that activates the same receptors as heroin does but does not produce the same pleasurable rush that heroin does. What medication is Janetta taking?
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