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Ph 104 Final
Terms in this set (115)
occurs at a full moon when Earth is directly between the moon and the sun
Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon; only occurs when there is a full moon. Also has a umbra (total eclipse) and penumbra (partial eclipse); Total lunar eclipse can be seen anywhere on Earth where the moon is visible.
Occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth
Why is Earth unique?
it has liquid water at its surface
We have fire, weather, liquid water, snow, rainbows, ice locked poles, etc.
What does strong magnetic field have to do with auroras?
Strong magnetic field= geodynamo= auroras
Earth's magnetic field is an invisible shield around our planet that protects us from the solar wind. The shape of Earth's magnetic field causes the aurora to form two ovals that sit like crowns over the North and South magnetic poles. This is why communities in the northern regions of Canada see the aurora regularly.
The Northern Lights, or Aurora Borealis, are caused by charged gas particles - that flow away from the Sun as a "solar wind" - interacting with the Earth's magnetic field. This solar wind has its own magnetic field, which can "drag away" the Earth's magnetic field lines, disconnecting them from our planet.
Where did Earth's water come from?
Outgassing, meteorites, and icy comets
Encapsulated as tiny drops inside salt crystals found in meteorites.
Famous Scientists mentioned in Class
What happened to Mar's atmosphere?
It was destroyed by CME's.
Solidiﬁed core no longer generates geodynamo
Weak magnetosphere = solar wind strips away atmosphere.
Mars lost its global magnetic field, weakening the atmosphere
a graph representing the relationship of the states of matter of a substance to temperature and pressure
What can a phase diagram be used to show?
how a change in temperature or pressure might affect the state of a substance
Why is Mars red?
The iron in the surface rocks have been oxidized over time.
Chemical reactions between surface rock and atmospheric oxygen literally rusted the surface.
What is the tallest mountain in the Solar System and where is it located?
Olympus Mons on Mars
What is the largest canyon in the Solar System and where is it located?
Valles Marineri mars
-a small rocky body orbiting the sun. Large numbers of these, ranging in size from nearly 600 miles (1,000 km) across (Ceres) to dust particles, are found (as the asteroid belt ) especially between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, though some have more eccentric orbits, and a few pass close to the earth or enter the atmosphere as meteors.
-objects revolving around the sun that are too small and too numerous to be considered planets
-rocky metallic objects that orbit the sun but are too small to be considered planets
asteroids and comets
Leftovers from the accretion process
Rocky asteroids inside frost line
Icy comets outside frost line
The Asteroids Belt is billions of rocky objects which orbit the Sun between the inner and outer planets. Comets are made of ice and rock and orbit the Sun with highly eccentric orbits.
Follow Jupiter's orbit
two groups of asteroids not in the asteroid belt
group of asteroids that travel in front of and behind Jupiter
-predicts a planet between mars and jupiter
-An empirical scheme for predicting the orbital distances of planets.
-A law the predicts the spacing between planets in the solar system
Bode's law, also called Titius-Bode law, empirical rule giving the approximate distances of planets from the Sun. It was first announced in 1766 by the German astronomer Johann Daniel Titius but was popularized only from 1772 by his countryman Johann Elert Bode.
What is the Titus-Bode-Phillips Principle?
Titus-Bode-Phillips Principle suggests a planet should be in the position of the
.Titus-Bode-Phillips Principle (Spiral Algorithm)
Numerical sequence 0, 3, 6, 12, 24; then adds 4 and divides by 10 to
obtain 0.38, 0.7, 1, 1.6, 2.8; good approximations for the distances from
the Sun to all the planets and dwarf planets in astronomical units (AU).
The Asteroid Belt and the dwarf planet, Ceres fit into sequence where
another planet should be found.
What are NEOs and EGAs?
Near Earth Objects
Earth Gravity Assist (gravity speed boost to a satellite)
Near Earth Objects (NEOs)
Asteroids and large meteoroids whose orbits bring them close to Earth's orbit
Large celestial bodies, such as comets and asteroids, that might come close enough to collide with earth
Asteroids and comets that cross the orbit of Earth.
Earth Gravity Assist
Earth Gravity Assist (gravity speed boost to a satellite)
A loose collection of ice and dust that orbits the sun, typically in a long, narrow orbit.
a celestial object consisting of a nucleus of ice and dust and, when near the sun, a "tail" of gas and dust particles pointing away from the sun.
A ball of frozen dust and rock that orbits the sun and has a tail that glows
a small rocky body orbiting the sun. Large numbers of these, ranging in size from nearly 600 miles (1,000 km) across (Ceres) to dust particles, are found (as the asteroid belt ) especially between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, though some have more eccentric orbits, and a few pass close to the earth or enter the atmosphere as meteors.
any of numerous small celestial bodies composed of rock and metal that move around the sun (mainly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter)
What are the three basic types of impact craters?
Elongate crater, complex and simple
What is the Difference between a comet's ion plasma tail and dust tail?
dust has more mass, thus more momentum; spray pagern like a garden hose.; ion plasma tail is straight and narrow: protons in solar wind ionize H2O vapor stripping oﬀ electrons = no electrons = positive plasma
Ion Tail: Neutral gas ionized by solar radiation.
Dust Tail: Small solid particles that are about the same size as cigarette smokes. They form because sunlight pushes on these small particles, gently shoving them away from the comet's nucleus.
What is a comet ion plasma tail?
Neutral gas ionized by solar radiation.
What is a Comet's dust tail?
Small solid particles that are about the same size as cigarette smokes. They form because sunlight pushes on these small particles, gently shoving them away from the comet's nucleus.
the region of interplanetary space between Mars and Jupiter where most asteroids are found
the region of the solar system between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, where many asteroids are found
Why does a comet's tail always point away from the Sun?
solar wind blows dust and ions away.
What is an exoplanet?
A planet that orbits a star other than the Sun
living organisms elsewhere in the universe
the scientific search for extraterrestrial or alien life
study of life in outer space
the scientific study of life's origin and distribution in the universe
the study of life in the universe, including life on Earth and the possibility of extraterrestrial life
What is the Copernican Principle?
States that the Earth is not in a central, specially favored position.
There is nothing special about Earth, it is just like any other planet with the same composition and position. Earth is like many other rocky planets recently discovered, 1 in 10 stars are like our Sun, The arm of the galaxy we are in is like several other arms and the Milky Way galaxy is like many other galaxies
What is the Drake Equation and why is it important?
A mathematical expression encapsulating the conceptual framework for SETI N=RxfpneflfifcL. It is a useful way to think about SETI scientifically. Each of the factors can be studied with scientific methods. Unfortunately, at this point in human history, we simply do not have enough information to know the actual value of most of the factors with any degree of accuracy.
a probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy
Mathematical expression encapsulativity the conceptual framework for SETI
N = Rxfpnef1fifcL
N = Rxfpnef1fifcL
Rx = Rate of formation of suitable stars in our galaxy
fp = Percentage of those stars with planets
ne = Number of planets per star that could sustain life like Earth
f1= Percentage of those planets where life actually develops (1 of 1,000)
fi = Percentage of planets from f1 with intelligent life (1 of 2,000)
fc = Percentage of planets from fi where technology develops
L = "Lifetime" of communicating civilizations in years (1/10,000,000)
Rx = 100 billion (aggregate number based on 13.2 billion year age of Milky Way)
fp = .5%
ne = .5
f1 = .1%
fi = .05%
fc = .5%
L = 1,000 years
N = ?
Solve for N
What is the Fermi Paradox?
If the Earth is an average (young) planet then civilizations should have evolved on many of the other planets in the Universe and many should be much more advanced than us, However, there is no evidence of alien contact or visitation
If aliens exist why haven't they come in contact with us. Why haven't they found found us.
Reasonable assumptions predict that a galactic civilization should have already arisen in the Milky Way. Yet, we have absolutely no evidence for it.
What is SETI and what is its mission?
Search for extraterrestrial intelligence.
Collective name for a number of activities undertaken to search for intelligent extraterrestrial life. SETI lost its major funding source in 2011.
How does NASA define something that is "alive"?
Living creatures respond, and their stimulation fosters a reaction-like motion, recoil, and in advanced forms, learning. Life is reproductive, as some kind of copying is needed for evolution to take hold through a population's mutation and natural selection. To grow and develop, living creatures need foremost to be consumers.
1) ability take in energy from the environment and transform it for growth and reproduction.
2)Organisms tend toward homeostasis.
3) Life is reproductive, as some kind of copying is needed for evolution to take hold through a population's mutation and natural selection.
*Something that begins an active existence (forms).
*Changes and matures over time (grows).
*Replicates through a well-ordered process.
*Converts "fuel" into life-energy; exports waste.
*Adapts to environmental conditions or perishes.
*Ends its existence.
What is the Kuiper belt?
a region of the solar system beyond the orbit of Neptune, believed to contain many comets, asteroids, and other small bodies made largely of ice.
relatively flat distribution of objects in the plane of the ecliptic, extending from around the orbit of Pluto out to about 50 AU from the Sun
a region of the solar system beginning just beyond the orbit of Neptune that contains many icy comets
What is the Oort Cloud?
It's not really a cloud at all, but rather refers to the trillion or so comets thought to orbit the Sun at great distances
A spherical shell around the solar system formed by comets with long orbital periods
What are Scattered Disk Objects?
The cut-off point for Kuiper Belt Objects is 50 AU from the Sun. Beyond that is a
region called the "scattered disk", where objects are"flung" into highly elliptical and
inclined orbits through gravitational interactions with outer planets, mostly Neptune.
Objects beyond 50 AU are called Scattered Disk Objects (SDO).
Kupler Belt vs. Scattered Disk Object
Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs): Pluto is just one of a large number of size-able icy worlds forming a distinct population beyond Neptune within the Kuiper Belt. The choice became: are they all KBOs planets, or none of them?
The cut-off point for Kuiper Belt Objects is 50 AU from the Sun. Beyond that is a region called the "scattered disk", where objects are"flung" into highly elliptical and inclined orbits through gravitational interactions with outer planets, mostly Neptune. Objects beyond 50 AU are called Scattered Disk Objects (SDO)
What is a trans-Neptunian object?
Any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance than Neptune
A Trans-Neptunian Object is a small body of rock and ice that orbits the Sun beyond the orbit of Neptune.
a celestial body resembling a small planet but lacking certain technical criteria that are required for it to be classed as such.
An object that orbits the sun and is spherical, but has not cleared the area of its orbit
One of the icy Kuiper belt objects that, like Pluto, is caught in a 3:2 orbital resonance with Neptune
one of about 100 objects in the Kuiper belt that orbit the Sun with nearly the same semi major axis as Pluto
What is the difference between a dwarf planet and a plutino?
Larger Kuiper Belt Objects are known as "plutoids"
or "plutinos". Plutinos are object locked in a 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune: for every 3 orbits of Neptune, they complete two orbits.
Orcus (2004 DW)Roman god of the dead.
Ixion (2001 KX76) InGreek mythology, the first man
guilty of kin-slaying
What is the definition of a planet?
1. A body that orbits a star.
2. A body that is big enough its own gravity has pulled it into a round shape.
3. A body that is not the satellite of another body.
4. A body that has cleared its neighborhood and orbit of contending bodies.
What is the Great Dark Spot?
A big cyclone on Neptune
huge spinning storm in the southern atmosphere of Neptune which was about the size of the entire Earth
What is the Great Red Spot?
a long-lived, high-pressure storm on Jupiter
A large and long-lived, possibly permanent, storm on Jupiter.
Why is the moon Triton unique?
cantaloupe crust- major moon
probably a captured dwarf planet from the kuiper belt.
one of the few moons in the solar system that is geologically active
has a permanent atmosphere
Largest moon of Neptune. Only large moon in the Solar System with a retrograde orbit; an orbit in the opposite direction to the planet's rotation.
What are the Adams Ring arcs?
The outermost ring of Neptune.
The brightest parts of the Adams ring and were the first elements of Neptune's ring system to be discovered.
What is the B612 Project?
Punch the asteroid with a kinetic hit and then use a gravity tractor - simply a satellite of some mass we position 1.5 radius out in front of the asteroid and use gravity bond to pull it away from Earth.
A chunk of rock or dust in space
a small body moving in the solar system that would become a meteor if it entered the earth's atmosphere.
A streak of light in the sky produced by the burning of a meteoroid in Earth's atmosphere.
Meteors are debris from comets, impact ejecta from other bodies, or small
asteroids. A meteor's glow is vaporization and ionization melting =
fluorescence occurring because the meteor heats to 36,000oF. (60 miles up)
A meteoroid that passes through the atmosphere and hits Earth's surface.
a meteoroid that reaches the Earth's surface without burning up completely
large meteor that bursts; a fireball
an exploding or exploded meteor or meteorite.
From what point in the sky do meteor showers originate ?
What is one way you can tell an impact crater from other holes in the ground ?
What happened over Tunguska, Siberia 1908
50 m stony Meteorite
forests flattened, 200km2
No crater bc it was an airburst
Stony meteorite (approx. 50m) exploded in air
RI = 300years, very common
-Saw dead trees in a circular pattern
-No crater was ever found
-Enormous shock/heat waves
What is an ELE?
Extinction Level Event
What is the "frost line"?
the boundary in the solar nebula beyond which ices could condense; only metals and rocks could condense within the frost line
The point beyond which compounds such as water and methane condense to form ice.
Area beyond mars and the asteroid belt where everything freezes.
What is the major difference between gas giant and ice giant planets?
Gas Giants consist primarily of the gases hydrogen and helium, with a rocky/iron core. The interiors of Ice Giants consist primarily of what astronomers call 'Ices'
Gas giant planets
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune - plants made primarily of gas
Ice Giant Planets
Uranus and Neptune
What is a Van Allen Belt?
an area where space ions are trapped
One of at least two layers of plasma that is held in place around the planet Earth by the planet's magnetic field.
donut shaped zone of energetic charged particles (plasma), held in place by a planet's magnetic ﬁeld
What planets have rings?
How are Jupiter's rings different from other planets rings?
Unlike the rings of other planets and
moons, Jupiter's rings are made of
tiny rock fragments the size of smoke.
Why is the moon important to the Earth?
Creates ocean tides, Stabilizes Earth's rotation
-gives us sense of stability, helps with obliquity (tilt) of the earth
-the earth's tilt changes over 41,000 years and is responsible for bringing on the ice age
-without the moon the tilt would be more dramatic
-also evokes tides on earth, bring life from the sea to the shore
Why is the Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 so important?
Showed the moons of Jupiter
First direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System.
Why is the moon Lo important?
It has about 400 active volcanoes making it the most geologically active object in the Solar System.
How does Lo maintain its volcanism?
It is caught in a tug of war between the other 62 moons of Jupiter and Jupiter itself. The friction caused by it being almost pulled apart causes heat and pressure within.
What makes the moon Europa unique?
Thought to have a large body of water under its crust.
Highest albedo in the solar system and theres water and ice below the surface.
What is Ganymede?
largest moon in the solar system
Why is Ganymede unique in the Solar System?
largest moon in the solar system
What is a shepherd moon?
Minor satellites whose gravitational influence constrain the extent of rings.
a small moon orbiting close to a planetary ring, especially of Saturn, and whose gravitational field confines the ring within a narrow band.
Small moons that orbit near the outer edges of rings or within gaps in the ring.
What two things make the moon Rhea unique in the Solar System?
Only moon with its own rings and is the first world identified with O2 in atmosphere besides Earth.
What moon is nicknamed the "Death Star Moon"?
Saturn's moon: Mimas
Where is the Kraken Mare and why is it so unusual?
Saturn moon titan. Larger than caspian sea on earth and made of methane ethane and nitrogen.
Largest body of liquid on the surface of Saturn's moon Titan. It's unusual because it's bigger than the Caspian Sea on Earth.
What is cryovolcanism?
Cryovolcanism: The eruption of liquid or vapor phases of water or other volatiles (with or without entrained solids) that would be frozen solid at the normal temperature of the icy satellite's surface
Volcanoes that erupts water ammonia and methane
Forms on icy moons
When frozen gas and dust are released at a rate of more than 100 kg/sec
What is considered the "most thermally unstable body in the Solar System"?
Io is the most thermally unstable body in the Solar System. Io's volcanoes put out more heat than all of Earth's volcanoes.
What is the lunar regolith?
layer of fine powder covering the lunar surface
the surface layer, consisting entirely of fine powder and rock fragments
What is an ablation crust and how does it form on a meteorite?
Enters atmosphere at such a high speed air is compressed and temperature increases and melts.
What is a hyper-velocity?
3,000 m/a second.
Velocity is so high that the strength of materials upon impact is very small compared to inertial stresses.
What is shock metamorphism?
-occurs when high heat and pressures generated during an impact deform the underlying rock layers
-Shock wave related deformation and heating during impact events
-Rocks act as a liquid
What is a flux tube?
region of space containing magnetic field.
where aurora is and particles can come in.
Why are gas and ice giant planets oblate?
Why is the moon Titan interesting to astronomers and planetary scientists?
only known moon with big secondary atmosphere
Active rain and snow storms
largest planet, most moons, Giant Red Spot
-75% hydrogen, 25% helium
-has a fast rotation and ammonia crystals arranged into light-and-dark colored bands in the troposphere, causing storms and turbulence with wind speeds of 100 m/s
-has a planetary ring, a Great Red Spot (an anti-cyclonic storm) and 63 moons
-atmosphere made mostly of helium and hydrogen
-largest planet in volume and mass w/ 28 moons
-fastest rotation (10hrs compared to our 24)
-has a Great Red Spot
-four largest moons are Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa (discovered by Galileo)
-observed rings made of rock/ice, gases include hydrogen / helium, many moons
-Composed of hydrogen, some helium & trace elements
-has a small core of rock & ice, a thick layer of metallic hydrogen, and a gaseous outer layer with wind speeds up to 1,800 km/h
-has a system of rings & 61 moons
-the ring planet
-one of its moons is called Titan
•Thick atmosphere with lots of cloud
-Composed mainly of hydrogen & helium, but also contains water, ammonia, methane and traces of hydrocarbons
-has the coldest atmosphere (49K), a ring system, a magnetosphere & 13 moons
-third largest planet
-thick atmosphere that absorbs red-light, making the planet appear blue
Great Dark Spot
-planet is shrinking as core is releasing heat
-Has an atmosphere similar to Uranus, a Great Dark Spot, and the strongest winds of any planet (up to 2,100 km/h)
-cold (approx. 55K), with a fragmented ring system and 12 moons
*cold blue planet; Uranus' twin; largest moon of solar system "Triton"
-248 Earth years to make one revolution around the sun
-2006 reclassified as Dwarf planet
-one moon called "Charon"
What is the difference between the Mercury, Gemini and Apollo space missions?
Apollo was all missions to the moon
Mercury went to mercury
Gemini was to send two people into space.
Who were the first two humans into space (leave Earths atmosphere)?
Yuri Gagarin and Alan Shepard
Who were the "astrochimps"?
Ham was the first and Enos was the second
Why is 1972 a significant year in space exploration?
Spacelift and shuttle program.
What was the Space Race?
a race between the United States and the Soviet Union to explore outer space
Competition between USSR and USA to discover outer space
Many scientists and military leaders believed that control of space would be very important. Consequently, the USA and USSR invested billions of dollars in developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc. This investment led to great scientific advances, but also caused friction and insecurities.
What was the "Space Race" and how did it relate to the Cold War?
Part of the Cold War competition between the U.S. and the Soviets to see who could be first into outer space (the Soviets) and the first to the Moon (the U.S.)
Who were the "Mercury 13"?
Thirteen women who were overqualified but not chosen because they were women
Who were Robert Goddard and Werner von Braun?
Robert H. Goddard: launched the ﬁrst successful liquid fueled rocket with Braun's help Americans build their ﬁrst copies of the German V2 rocket.
"Father of Rocketry"
-1st to launch a liquid fuel rocket (March, 1926)
Werner Von Braun
●the world's foremost rocket scientist
●was a close friend of JFK
• German scientist who got our rocket program going
1946: German rocket engineer Wernher von Braun, who
was in charge of German long-range missile research during
WWII, surrenders to the US. With his help Americans build
their first copies of the German V-2.
Who were some of the original astronauts and cosmonauts?
The first eleven Soviet cosmonauts, July 1965. ...
A Soviet space skafander in the Museum of Cosmonautics, Moscow.
Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space.
What is Tholin?
an abiotic complex organic solid formed by chemistry from
energy input into simple, cosmically relevant gases or solids (ices).
Tholins are "abiotic complex organic gunk."
Jupiter's magnetic field sweeps past Io, picking up a ton of sulfur and oxygen ions every second and directing them into a doughnut shaped ring.
the four largest moons of Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto
The four largest and brightest moons of Jupiter discovered by Galileo
Why are Uranus and Neptune blue?
-trace amounts of methane reflect a blue color
-methane in their atmosphere filters out red light
What is a unique characteristic of Uranus' moons?
What and who was the first animal in space?
A Dog named Laila.
What is a LaGrange point?
A location in space where the combined gravitational forces of two large bodies, such as Earth and the sun or Earth and the moon, equal the centrifugal force felt by a much smaller third body.
Place in space where two orbiting bodies gravity cancel each other out.
What is Mission Artemis?
NASA's Artemis mission seeks to "demonstrate new technological advancements and lay the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy." To this end, NASA is building the new Orion spacecraft and the highly-advanced Space Launch System (SLS), to propel heavier payloads off Earth and send humans into space for longer durations than previously achieved
The U.S. goal is to build and establish a permanent lunar base on the Moon's south pole which harbors 1 trillion pounds water ice which means life support, air to breathe, water to drink, and hydrogen and oxygen to make rocket fuel. Will use nuclear power to extract the water from ice locked in rocks.
The first Artemis mission to the Moon's surface, will consist of two female crew members, will remain on the surface for 6.5 days—this is double the longest period of time any Apollo mission spent on the surface. The two astronauts will conduct up to four spacewalks on the lunar surface, perform a variety of scientific observations, and sample water ice.
What is Mission Gateway?
Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon
Miranda had the greatest variety of landforms in the solar systemMiranda: One of the most unusual objects in the Solar System.
• Surface is incredibly diverse: the expected heavy cratered terrain is
present, but the surface is also crossed by a network of rift-like
canyons and patch-work geology typical of a much bigger object
Miranda's cliffs: most are 3 - 4 miles high; but Verona Rupes is
12 miles high, the tallest cliff face in the Solar System.
12 miles high
Tallest in Solar System
3 - 4 miles
Ariel shows considerable surface activity, a surprise considering its small size and has a bright surface and grooves 10 km deep. Based on this, it can be concluded that Ariel has a fairly young surface.
a name for a Soviet or Russian astronaut
a person who is trained to travel into outer space
What is a unique characteristic of Uranus moons?
All Uranus' moons are named after characters in literary works of Alexander Pope (3 moons) and William Shakespeare (25 moons) - unlike other moons in the Solar System which are named after gods and beings from ancient mythologies.
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