Praxis 7812.

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Consonant Trigraph
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Terms in this set (93)
figurative languageLanguage that cannot be taken literally since it was written to create a special effect or feeling.examples of figurative languagesimile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, idiom, oxymoronCognatesWords that look similar and have the same origin in two languages.Idiomatic Languagethe word/phrases mean something different than their literal meaning.Close readingthoughtful, critical analysis of a text that focuses on significant details or patterns in order to develop a deep, precise understanding of the text's form, craft, meanings, etc.Text Structuresrefers to how the information within a written text is organizedExamples of text structuredescription, compare/contrast, order/sequence, problem/solution, cause/effectcomplex sentenceA sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clausecompound sentencea sentence with two or more coordinate independent clauses, often joined by one or more conjunctionsDependent clauseA clause in a complex sentence that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence and that functions within the sentence as a noun or adjective or adverbSynthesispulling together background, knowledge, newly learned ideas, connection , inferences, and summaries into complete and original understanding of text.Author's ToneThe authors attitude or feeling about a piece of writingShared Writingteacher and students work cooperatively together to compose a piece of writing, teacher=scribeBias/perspectiveposition or slant toward which the author shapes the information.StanzaA group of lines in a poem, a paragraph for poetryPhonetically Regularcommon phoneme-grapheme relationships and can be sounded out or decoded.DirectionalityThe left to right tracking of print while reading and the return sweepone to one matchingshowing a relationship between the word and spoken sound that are spoken with the wordIdentical onsetsame beginning onsetDigraphsa combination of two letters representing one sound, as in ph and ey.GraphophonemicRecognition of letters and the understanding of sound-symbol relationships and spelling patternsPrint Conceptshow print worksSemanticsound syllable matchesDecodingunderstanding letter-sound relationships to help break apart new words you have not seen beforeOmissionskipping over or leaving outtier 1 words areused in daily speechtier 2 words aremore formal and academictier 3 words aretechnical vocabulary used in the content areasSubstitutionreplacing words with more familiar wordsRepetitionRepeating of words during readingSyntacticaccording to syntax, the meaning of wordsConsonant Blendconstists of two or more consonants sonded together in such a way that each is heard- like the blend of b and l in the word blend.r-controlled vowelsThe letter r affects the sound of the vowel(s) that precedes it (er, ir, ur, ar, or)Prosodythe patterns of rhythm and sound used in poetryRimethe string of letters that follow the onsetRead aloudinstructional practice where teachers read texts aloud to studentsAlphabetic Principlean understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken words.phonemesmallest unit of sound, 44 in the alphabetGraphemethe written or printed representation of a phonemephonological awarenessidentifying and manipulating units of oral languageAssonanceRepetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximityAlliterationthe occurrence of the same letter or sound at the beginning of adjacent or closely connected words.Irregular Spellingphonetically regular words that differ in sound from their spellingTwo vowels togetherthe first is usually long and the second is often doubledShort vowel rulevowel in the middle is usually short4 types of sentencesDeclarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatoryDeclarative Sentencestatement (.)Interrogative sentencequestions (?)Imperative sentencecommandexclamatory sentencestatement with (!)GerundA verb form ending in -ing that is used as a nounParts of speechadjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, nouns, pronouns, prepositions, verbsSocial Cognitive approachlanguage development is a complex interaction of linguistic, social, and cognitive influencesCognitive Approachchildren must develop appropriate skills before they can acquire knowledge, PiagetLinguistic Approachstates the ability to use a language is innate and biological, chomskyLearning Approachfirst learned by imitating the speech of adultsReading staminastudents ability to focus and read independently for extended amounts of time with out being distracted.Contextwords, sentences, and ideas that come before and after a word or phraseRatereading at appropriate speedAccuracyreading words in text with no errorsHigh frequency wordswords that occur most frequently in written materialPrefixescarry meaning, located BEFORE the base/root/stem of a wordSuffixescarry meaning, located after the base/root/word system of a wordCVCconsonant vowel consonantorthographic meaningthe ability to identify patterns of specific letters as words eventually leads to word recognitionphonemic awarenessability to focus and manipulate individual soundsOnsetthe initial phonological unit of any wordSyllablesingle unbroken sound of a spoken wordShared readinginteractive reading experience that occurs when students join in or share the reading of a book or other text while guided and supported by a teacher. The teacher explicitly models the skills of proficient readers, including reading with fluency and expression.Compound wordTwo or more words combined to create a new or more specific word.Consonancerepetitive sounds produced by consonants within a sentence or phraseDiscourse conventionscommunication practices specific to setting and individuals participatingSummarizing/ParaphrasingShortening the content of the story, putting story in your own wordsaudiencethe listener, viewer, or reader of a text, THE WHOpurposethe goal the speaker wants to achieve, THE WHYline of reasoningthinking that is logical and coherentregisterdegree of formality when speaking formally and informallySpeaking stylemanner of speaking and use of words or phrasesDialecta particular form of a language that is peculiar to a specific region or social group. HELLO VS HOWDYNRP Big 51. Phonics 2. Phonological awareness 3. Vocab 4. Fluency 5. ComprehensionSemantic application to word analysisEMPHASIZES WORD MEANINGConsonantsb, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, zVowelsa, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y