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Anatomy and Physiology #3

Unit #3
STUDY
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neurons and neuroglia
The two types of cells of the nervous system are
All listed
Sensory receptors monitor light, monitor sound, are part of the PNS, or detect changes in and outside the body
Myelin
Comprises much of the cell membrane of Schwann cells
All listed
Which of the following are a type of neruoglia? Astrocyte, Oligodendrocyte, Ependymal cell or Schwann cell
Axons of the CNS lack Schwann cells
A reason that the CNS and PNS differ in their ability to regenerate after injury is that
Ganglia
Clusters of neuron cell bodies are called
Convergence
Axons from neurons in different parts of the nervous system contacting the same neuron
Axons
Synptic knobs are at the ends of?
Calcium ions
When an action potential passes over the surface of a synaptic knob, the contents of the vesicles are released in response to the presence of?
Threshold
A stimulus great enough to change the membrane potential and propagate an action potential is said to have reached?
Potassium
Which of the following ions cross cell membranes most readily? Potassium, Sodium, Calcium, Carbonate, or Magnesium
2,1,3,4
What is the correct sequence of events that follows a threshold potential? 1.the membrane depolarizes. 2. Sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse inward. 3. The membrane repolarizes. 4. Potassium channels open and potassium ions diffuse outward.
pia, arachnoid, and dura matter
The meninges consist of
brainstem
The fourth ventricle is in the
All listed
Cerebrospinal fluid
informs the autonomic centers in the brainstem and hypothalamus about the internal environment.
protects the brain
protects the spinal cord
provides a pathway for waste to enter the blood
crossed extensor reflex
When the flexor muscles of one arm contract in a withdrawal reflex, the extensor muscles of the other arm contract. This phenomenon is called?
Up the spinal cord to the thalamus
the spinothalamic tract conducts impulses?
Rubrospinal
Which of the following are descending tracts in the spinal cord?
All listed
The spinal cord has 31 segments, a cervical and lumbar enlargement, a core of gray matter surrounded by white matter, two deep longitudinal grooves
Cerebellum
the part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscular movements is the
Motor control of the muscles assoicated with speech is lost
If the area of the cerebral hemisphere corresponding to Broca's area is damaged
Anterior pituitary gland
Which of the following is not part of the diencephalon? Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Anterior pituitary gland, or posterior pituitary gland
unconsciousness or coma
If the reticular formation is injured, the person might exhibit signs of
dermatome
The area of skin supplied by sensory nerve fibers from a particular dorsal root is called a
primarily in the head
Special senses arise from receptors located
monitors oxygen levels in the blood
A type of receptor that does not trigger a sensation
sensory adaptation
The ability to ignore your socks around your ankles demonstrates
chemoreceptors
Stimulated by changes in concentration of chemical substances
pain receptors
stimulated by damage to tissue
thermoreceptors
stimulated by temperature changes
baroreceptors
stimulated by blood pressure changes
adapting very little, if at all
Pain receptors differ from other somatic recepters by
the Organ of Corti
The hearing receptors are most closely assiciated with the
Retina
Which of the following is part of the inner tunic of the eye
umami
The taste receptor that amino acid such as glutamate activate is
images in the eyes are different
Stereoscopic vision results when the
the direction of motion
Movement of hair cells in the semicircular canals signals
accumulation of aqueous humor
Glaucoma is usually caused by
astigmatism
The condition in which some parts of an image are in focus on the retina and other parts are
paracrine
Secretions that affect only nearby cells are termed
All listed
Steroid hormones
Are soluble in water
combine with protein receptor molecules
cause messenger RNA synthesis
consist of complex organic rings
activation of adenylate cyclase
Nonsteroid hormones cause ______________ in their targets
hypothalamus
Hormones that the posterior pituitary secretes are synthesized in the
All
Growth hormone
enhances the movement of amino acids
increases the rate of protein synthesis
increases the rate of fat metabolism
enlarges cells
thyroid gland
The __________ secretes triiodothyronine.
enhances the rate at which proteins are synthesized
Thyroxine
concentration of blood calcium
The secretion of parathyroid hormone is controlled primarily by the
calcitonin
The hormone that decreases calcium in the blood is called
conserve sodium and excrete potassium
Aldosterone promotes the homeostasis of ions by causing kidneys to
Cortisol
What stimulates the production of glucose from noncarbohydrates?
a decrease in the concentration of blood glucose
Secretion of insulin causes
False
Neuroglia are specialized to react to environmental change, and neurons support neuroglia
True
The somatic nervous system controls voluntary actions and the autonomic nervous system oversees involuntary action
False
Nodes of Ranview lie between neuron
False
Converging nerve fibers amplify nerve impulses
True
The dura matter is the outermost layer of the meninges
False
The arbor vitae is in the cerebrum
True
the choroid plexuses project into the ventricles
True
The hypoglossal cranial nerve controls muscles that move the tongue
False
The abducens nerve controls muscles that function in swallowing
False
Receptors that are stimulated by changes in chemical concentrations are called thermoreceptors
True
Endorphins are neuropeptides that have morphine-like actions
False
The utricle and saccule contain the sensory receptors associated with the sense of dynamic equilibrium
False
An autocrine secretion affects cells far away
False
The nervous system releases hormones at synapses and the endocrine system releases neurotranssmitters into the bloodstream
True
Steroid hormones diffuse through cell membranes, then bind with receptors, whereas nonsteroid hormones bind receptors on the target cell membrane
False
Oxytocin stimulates the kidneys to conserve water
False
The auditory ossicles are in the inner ear
True
When all three sets of cones are stimulated, a person senses white light.