Social Studies Exam Study Guide

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Terms in this set (87)
artifactan object made by humans used to learn about the pastOld Worldrefers to Europe, Africa, and Asia, the parts of the world known to people living in those places prior to Columbus's exploration of AmericaNew WorldNorth and South America; these continents were unknown to the Europeans before Columbus's voyages and thus were "new" to themindigenousnative to a certain area; the Native Americans are the indigenous people of North and South AmericaColumbian ExchangeAn exchange of goods, ideas and skills from the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to the New World (North and South America) and vice versa.colonya country or area under the political control of another country (a more powerful one)empirethe group of countries or territories controlled by a more powerful oneElectoral Collegethe body of electors who formally cast their votes for President of the United Statespolitical partyan organized group of people who share the same ideas about government and what its goals and policies should beWhat are the two main political parties in the U.S.?Republicans and Democratsparty platformthe list of opinions on issues and the goals a political party supportselectoral votesthe number of votes from each state that a candidate for president needs to win the office; these votes are cast by electors in each stateHow many electors are there in all? How many electoral votes are needed to win the presidency?538; 270GOPnickname for the Republican Party; stands for "Grand Old Party" and was given this name in the late 1800's because of its role in supporting the Union which won the Civil War and preserved the Unionincumbenta political official who currently holds the office and is running for reelectionU.S. Constitutionthe organization plan and rule book for our governmentConstitutional Conventionthe gathering of delegates from the different states who met to create the U.S. Constitution; they met in 1787 to debate and put together a new constitution and stronger national governmentAmerican Revolutionary War1775-1783; a war fought by people in the 13 Colonies to establish their independence from Britain; the Americans won the war against the British, and the United States became an independent countryrevolutionan overthrow of a government or system and a replacement of it with something newrebellionan act of resistance against an authority or governmentContinental Armythe first national army of the United States; it fought during the Revolutionary War; George Washington was its commanderGeorge WashingtonCommander of the Continental Army; became the first president of the United States of AmericaAlexander HamiltonSecretary of Treasury in Washington's cabinet; he was an important founding father who participated in the Constitutional Convention and helped to get the Constitution ratified by the states wit the many essays he wrote called The Federalist Papers.James MadisonHis ideas became the foundation for the U.S. Constitution; he is referred to as the "Father of the Constitution;" he also wrote the Bill of Rights and became the fourth president of the United StatesYou will be asked to use the timeline you created regarding Alexander Hamilton's life, the Revolutionary War, and the establishment of our new nation to answer questions on the exam.You will be asked to respond to short answer questions regarding key themes and events we have discussed while watching the musical Hamilton.You will be asked to analyze an advertisement and use a list of propaganda techniques to determine which ones are being titletells what the theme of the map ismap legendtells what the symbols on a map meancompass rosetells directionmap scalehelps reader of map to measure distance between placeslines of latitude and longitudehelps to locate places on a maplatitudethe distance a place is north or south of the equatorlongitudethe distance a place is east or west of the Prime MeridianSpecial Purpose Mapprovides focus on a certain theme such as population, climate, or natural hazardsoral historiesrecorded information based on interviews with people who experienced an historical event; important sources of information that show the personal impact of an event; they can show bias and may not always be completely factual because they are based on personal experiencestatisticsnumbers that can provide important information about the present and past; they are "number stories" that when viewed together, can help us draw conclusions Ex: percentages of people who voted Republican or Democratic in a state in an electionWhat is the most popular theory of how the first people began migrating into North America?they migrated from across the Bering Strait 13,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age; they were probably following large animals they huntedSome of the earliest cultures in what is now the United States were the cultures of the __________________________________. When?Mound Builders in the Mississippi River Valley; 4000 B.C. to 1700 A.D.The _____________________________________ was an early culture in the Southwest beginning as early as 100 A.D.Ancestral PuebloWho were the first Europeans to cross the Atlantic Ocean and reach North America? When did they come?The Vikings; 1000 A.D.What were the two important civilizations that existed in North America when Columbus and other European explorers first began coming to the Americas? What were some of their accomplishments?Maya (Central America) and the Aztec (Mexico); their accomplishments included the calendar, mathematics, astronomy, bridges, roads, pyramids, and citiesWhat were some things the Europeans were hoping to accomplish in their explorations of the Americas?Gold - wanted to gain new wealth, land, and natural resources; God - wanted to spread the Christian religion to the "savages" (Native Americans) Glory - wanted to increase their country's control of new foreign lands - become more powerful!The RenaissanceA time period in Europe during the late 1300's to mid-1600's when there was a revival of interest in the classics (ancient Greek and Roman ideas); increased interest in the world led to the exploration of the world.The Protestant ReformationA religious movement during the 1500's in which people broke away from the Catholic Church. This was the start of the Protestant religion. Some went to North America in search of religious freedom (Pilgrims are one example).What contributed to an interest in exploration? Why?invention of printing press; books became cheaper; information and interest in the world increasedBefore exploration, what continents were familiar to the Europeans and which two did they not know existed?Familiar: Europe, Asia, Africa Unknown: North and South AmericaWho was the first European explorer to reach North America and establish a permanent settlement?Christopher ColumbusWhat explorer were the Americas named after?Amerigo VespucciWhat did Amerigo Vespucci discover?He discovered that the Americas were not Asia but new continents.What 3 main countries claimed territory in North America in the 1600's and 1700's?France, Britain, and SpainWhat was the first permanent settlement established by Europe in what is now the United States of America? Who established it?St. Augustine (located in Florida); SpainWhat was the first colony established by the English in 1585? What happened to the colony and what did it become known as?Roanoke Colony; it mysteriously disappeared and is known as the "Lost Colony."What was the first successful colony established by Britain? When was it established and where was it located?Jamestown Colony; Located in Virginia; Established 1607Describe life for the members of Jamestown Colony.suffered hunger; cold winters; disease; problems getting along with Native Americans; tobacco was the cop that enabled the colony to surviveWho were the Pilgrims?They were separatists who wanted to separate from Britain and the Church of England.Why did the Pilgrims come to North America?They were searching for religious freedom.What colony did the Pilgrims establish? WhenPlymouth; 1620List ways the Native Americans helped the new European settlers.helped them find food; taught them about plants and animals; traded with them; served as guides when neededWho defeated the French in the French and Indian War and what did they gain?Britain defeated the French and gained all of France's land east of the Mississippi.When was the French and Indian War?1754-1763How are the number of electors determined?by population of stateWhat is our national government called?U.S. CongressWhat makes up our U.S. Congress?House of Representatives and the SenateHow many senators represent each state?2 senatorsHow is the number of representatives determined for each state?by population of stateWhat are the two main political parties?Republican and DemocratsWhat is the organizational plan and rule book for our government?U.S. ConstitutionWhen and where was the U.S. Constitution created?Philadelphia; 1787What are the 3 branches of government?Legislative, Executive, JudicialExplain the legislative branch of government.U.S. Congress which makes the lawsExplain the judicial branch of government.Supreme Court and federal courts which interprets the lawsExplain the executive branchPresident and his cabinet which enforces the lawsBe able to identify the following states: SOUTHEAST: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Arkansas, South Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia NORTHEAST: Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Maine, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Rhode Island, Vermont, Delaware MIDWEST: OhioBe able to interpret a map with the use of a map legend, map scale, compass rose, and lines of latitude and longitudeBe able to locate: MOUNTAIN RANGES: the Appalachian Mountains, the Rocky Mountains, PLAINS: Gulf Coastal Plains; Atlantic Coastal Plains; Central Lowlands; Great Plains; DESERTS: Great Basin Desert; Mojave Desert RIVERS: Mississippi, Ohio, Rio Grande, Colorado, Missouri, Columbia, Red OTHER WATER FORMS: Great Lakes, Great Salt Lake, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Gulf of MexicoOptional for bonus points: Locate and/or identify: all 50 states; Sierra Nevada Mountain Range; Cascade Mountain Range; Coastal Mountain Range; Sonoran Desert; St. Lawrence River; Hudson River; Potomac River; Delaware River; Cheapeake Bay