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REM sleep is called paradoxical sleep because?

our nervous system is highly active, while our voluntary muscles hardly move.

Chronic sleep deprivation is likely to

promote obesity and impair memory.

The activation-synthesis theory provides a physiological explanation for


A few hours of sleep deprivation each night can:

build up over time causing potentially serious physical and mental harm.

The rhythmic bursts of brain activity that occur during Stage 2 sleep are called

sleep spindles.

Consciousness is

our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

Jordanna has decided to go to bed early. Although her eyes are closed and she's very relaxed, she has not yet fallen asleep. An electroencephalograph is most likely to indicate the presence of

alpha waves.

According to Freud, repression is way for the unconscious to:

remove unacceptable thoughts and desires from conscious thought.

When he opened his movie theater, Joe intended to have messages about popcorn and candy flashed on the screen to promote concession sales. Such messages are called:

subliminal stimuli.

In a study on the effects of subliminal persuasion, Bargh and colleagues (1996) found that students exposed to words commonly associated with aging (for example, Florida, gray, wrinkled) ________ than those not exposed to the aging words.

walked more slowly down the hall as they were leaving the study

The sleep cycle is approximately ________ minutes.


Circadian rhythm refers to

a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24hour cycle.

Exposure to bright light causes the...

pineal gland to decrease the production of melatonin.

Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with

REM sleep

When you're told to turn over and stop snoring, you respond without much effort or processing if you are in a state of:

minimal consciousness.

The large, slow brain waves associated with Stage 4 sleep are called:

delta waves.

During the course of a full night s sleep, people are most likely to spend more time in

REM sleep than in Stage 4 sleep.

The circadian rhythm is influenced by light-sensitive retinal proteins that trigger signals to the

suprachiasmatic nucleus.

Three hours after going to sleep, Shoshanna's heart rate increases, her breathing becomes more rapid, and her eyes move rapidly under her closed lids. Research suggests that Shoshanna is


Advertising companies that tried to influence consumers' shopping habits by incorporating subliminal messages into commercials appealed to what type of unconscious?


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