83 terms

Poetry Terms

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doggerel
a term used for lines whose subject is trite and whose rhythms and sounds are monotonously heavy-handed
paraphrase
a prose restatement of central ideas of a poem in your own language
speaker
the voice used by the author in the poem
verse
a term used for lines composed in a measured rhythmical pattern
anagrams
words made from letters of other words
theme
a central idea or meaning
lyric
a brief poem that expresses the personal emotions and thoughts of a single speaker
narrative poem
a poem that tells a story
epic
a long narrative poem on a serious subject chronicling heroic deeds and important events
diction
choice of words
poetic diction
the use of elevated language over ordinary language
formal diction
a dignified, impersonal, and elevated use of language
middle diction
maintains correct language use and reflects the way most educated people speak
informal diction
the plain language of everyday use
colloquially
type of informal diction that reflects casual, conversational language that often includes slang expressions
dialect
a type of informal diction spoken by definable groups of people from a particular geographic region, economic group, or social class
jargon
a category of language defined by a trade or profession
denotations
the literal, dictionary meaning of a word
connotations
associations and implications that go beyond a word's literary meanings
persona
a speaker created by the poet
ambiguity
allows for 2 or more simultaneous interpretations of a word, phrase, action, or situtation, all of which can be supported by the context of a work
syntax
the ordering of words into meaningful verbal patterns
tone
the writer's attitude toward the subject; the mood created by all the elements in the poem
image
language that adressesthe senses
pun
a play on words that relies on a word having more than one meaning or sounding like another word
synecdoche
a figure of speech in which part of something is used to signify the whole
metonomy
when something closely associated with a subject is substituted for it
apostrophe
an address to either someone who is absent an therefore cannot hear the speaker or to something nonhuman that cannot comprehend
hyperbole
extreme exaggeration; adds emphasis without intending to be literally true
understatement
says less than intended
paradox
a statement that initially appears to be self-contradictory, but on a closer inspection turns out to make sense
oxymoron
a condensed form of paradox in which 2 contradictory words are used together
symbol
something that represents something else
conventional symbol
something that is recognized by many people to represent certain ideas
literary symbol
anything in a work that maintains its literal significance while suggesting other meanings
allegory
a narration or description usually restricted to a single menaing because its events, actions, characters, settings, and objects represent specific abstractions or ideas
didactic poetry
designed to teach an ethical, moral, or religious lesson
irony
a techinque that reveals a discrepancy between what appears to be and what is actually true
ballad
tells a story that was sung from one generation to the next until it is finally transcribed
literary ballad
a narrative poem that is written in deliberate imitation of the language, form, and spirit of the traditional ballad
folk ballad
oral transmittance from one generation to the next
onomatopoeia
the use of a word that resembles the sound it denotes
alliteration
the repetition of the same consonant sounds at the beginning of nearby words
assonance
the repetition of the same vowel sound in nearby words
euphony
refers to language that is smooth and musically present to the ear
rhyme
a way of creating sound patterns
eye rhyme
where words have similar spelling but different pronunciations
end rhyme
the rhyme comes at the end of the lines; the most common form of rhyme
internal rhyme
places at least one of the rhymed words within the line
masculine rhyme
the rhyming of single-syllable words
feminine rhyme
consists of a rhyme stressed syllable followed by one or more identical rhymed unstressed syllables
exact rhymes
share the same stressed vowel sounds as well as sharing sounds that follow the noun
near rhyme
the sounds are almost but not exactly alike
rhythm
refers to the recurrence of stressed and unstressed sounds
stress
places more emphasis on one syllable than another
meter
when a rhythmic pattern of stresses recur in a poem
prosody
all the metrical elemenst in a poem
scansion
consists of measuring the stresses in a line to determine its metrical pattern
foot
the metrical unit by which a line of poetry is measured
rising meters
metrical feet which move from unstressed to stressed sounds
falling meters
metrical feet which move from stressed to unstressed sounds
line
the number of feet
blank verse
unrhymed iambic pentameter
caesura
a pause within a line ( || )
end-stopped line
when a line has a pause at its end
run-on line (enjambment)
a line that ends without a pause and continues into the next line for its meaning
form
a poem's overall structure or shape
fixed form
a poem that can be categorized by the pattern of its lines, meter, rhythm, or stanzas
open form (free verse)
a pem that does not conform to the established patterns of meter, rhyme, and stanza
stanza
consist of a grouping of lines, set of by a space, that usually has a set pattern of meter and rhyme
rhyme scheme
the pattern of end rhymes
couplet
consists of 2 lines that usually rhyme and have the same meter
heroic couplet
consists of a rhymed iambic pentameter
tercet
a 3-line stanza
triplet
when a 3 lines in a tercet rhyme
terza rima
an interlocking 3-line rhyme scheme
quatrain
a 4-line stanza
ballad stanza
alternating 8 and 6-syllable lines
sonnet
consists of 14 lines, usually written in iambic pentameter
Italian sonnet
divided into an octave and a sestet
octave
a poetic stanza of 8 lines
sestet
a stanza consisting of exactly 6 lines
English sonnet
organized into 3 quatrains and a couplet