How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

128 terms

N220 final

latent period
from 1st exposure to 1st s/sx
prodromal period
from 1st s/sx and on
cause is the result of an unintended medical tx
consecquence of going through an illness
probability that it will be positive
the probability that a test will be negative
what ae the 3 components of GAS
Alarm reaction, Stage of resistance, State of exhaustion
in Gas, what is the Alarm reaction:
fight-or-fight response due to
stressful stimulus
in Gas, what is the State of exhaustion:
point where the body can
no longer return to homeostasis
-allostatic overload
in Gas, what is the Stage of resistance:
allostatic return
name the scites of action in the hormonal pathway
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, adrenal cortex
what does the hypothalamus secret
corticotropic-releasing hormone
what does the pituitary gland secret
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
what does the adrenal cortex release
glucocorticoids, cortisol, aldosterone
explain the neuro-pathway
hypothalamus activates sympathetic nervous system, then the SN stimulates the adrenal medulla
in the neuro-pathway, what does the adrenal medula secrete
catecholamines (nor-epi, and epinephrine)
normal values WBC
5,000 - 10,000/mm3
RBC Normal Adult Values
4.5 - 5.5 million/mm3 (4 - 5 females)
Normal Adult Values Platelets
140,000 - 400,000/mm3
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) formula
(Hct X 10)/RBC
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH) formula
(Hgb X 10)/RBC
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) formula
(Hgb/Hct) X 100
Neutrophil Primary roles
57 - 67%
Removal of debris
Phagocytosis of bacteria
Prepare the injured site for Healing
Eosinophil Primary roles
Allergy - Ingest antigenantibody complexes
Mediate vascular effects of histamine and serotonin in allergic reactions
Bind to and degranulate onto parasites (worms)
Monocytes Are directed by
TH1 lymphocytes
what lymphocyte is humoral immunity
B lymphocytes
what lymphocyte is cell mediated immunity
T lymphocytes
Classic Signs of Anemia
Dyspnea on Exertion (DOE)
cortisol increases
aldosterone increase
blood volume
what is hydropic swelling
accumulation of water b/c of malfunction of Na/K pump, whic is ATP dependent
give ex of cells that can experience hydropic swelling
epithelial, cubodial
name the 4 normal intracellular accumulations
lipids, carbs, glycogen, protein
cell gets smaller
cell gets bigger
increase in cell #
conversion of one cell type to another
disorderly growth
lack of oxygen
what are the different types of necrosis
Coagulative, Liquefactive, Fat necrosis, Caseous necrosis
what is Dry gangrene
Form of coagulative necrosis characterized by blackened, dry, wrinkled tissue
Wet gangrene is a form of what type of necrosis
Gas gangrene Results from infection of necrotic tissue by
anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium),
physical characteristics that are outwardly apparent
an organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations
The two identical halves of a chromosome
Cri du Chat, French word "cry of the cat" is caused by deletion of the short arm of chromosome _______.
what are the 2 Sex chromosome disorder
Klinefelter syndrome and Turner syndrome
Klinefelter syndrome only affects
Klinefelter syndrome-lacks
Turner syndrome only affects
what is Marfan syndrome
connective tissue disorder a Medelian (single gene) disorder
Marfan syndrome-features:
tall, slender, thin long arms and legs
Huntington syndrome- describe the features.
also called chorea, involentary movement of arms, mental deterioration. happens around age 40
What is autosomal recessive? Who is the carrier? who will get it
both parents must carry the genes. men and women can get it
hemophilia- the bleeding disorder associated with a deficiency of factor
8 (VIII)
When is congenital malformation most vulnerable?
3 to 9 weeks
Low WBC count
abnormal increase of white blood cells
Immunoglobulins are proteins that are produced by
B cells
complements- the 20 inactive proteins in circulation. When activated they release chemical to promote:
inflammation, chemotaxis, and lysis
CD4 is what T cell
T helper
CD8 is which T cell
cytotoxic T
IgD is found where
on B cell
which is the most common Ig
Ig G
Types I, II, III Hypersensitivity mediated by antibodies produced by
B lymphocytes.
Type IV Hypersensitivity mediated by
T cells
Type I Hypersensitivity Peak action
Type I Hypersensitivity: what kind of allergies are they
food allergies, drug allergies
what receptor triggers increased vascular permeability, vasodilation (flushing) urticaria formation (hives), smooth muscle constriction (bronchoconstriction), increase mucus secretion and pruritis (itching), and increased gut permeability
Type II Hypersensitivity Peak action
15 min to 30 min
Type II Hypersensitivity
antibody attack antigen. ex:blood transfusion, Hemolytic Disease of the newborn
Type III Hypersensitivity -define
allergen can come from animals, plants, bacterial. not tissue specific
what Hypersensitivity can cause Glomerulonephritis
Type III Hypersensitivity
define Type IV Hypersensitivity
Tissue damage resulting from delay cellular reaction to antigen
what Hypersensitivity is this about: The principal mediators are lymphocytes-release lymphokines that directly kill cells. 48 to 72 hours
Type IV
what Hypersensitivity has these conditions: Contact dermatitis
Tuberculin-type hypersensitivity
Transplant rejection, graft versus host disease
Type IV
Primary immunodeficiency
congenital, genetic or acquire disorders
Secondary immunodeficiency
Acquired- stress, nutrition, drugs
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency- lack T cells, and nonfunctioning B cells
Systemic Lupus erythematosus
chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of collagen in the skin, of joints, and of internal organs
DiGeorge syndrome
congenital disorder-Lack of thymus function, T cell disorder
s/sx of blood transfusion reaction
fever, chills, flushing, tachycardia, hypotension, low back pain , chest pain, nausea, vomiting, restlessness, anxiety, headache, shock, death.
Systemic Lupus erythematosus is caused by what type of Hypersensitivity
Type III
What are hallmark lupus s/sx
fever, joint pain, butterfly-shaped erythema involving cheeks and nose
silver sulfadazine (Silvadene) treatment of
infections in burns and wounds(debidement).
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and zinc improve
wound healing
what is Dakin's
bleach solution for Wound care
What immune cell does HIV attack
CD4 T helper
how low does the T cell count have to be in order to be diagnosed as full blown AIDS?
< 200 cells/ μL
Period when HIV proteins can be detected in the blood
Seroconversion occurs
3 - 17 weeks after infection
When infected (i.e.: from a needle stick) how long can it take for the test to be positive?
4-7 weeks
Average time from initial infection to AIDS is about
10 years
what class of drug can elevate plasma level of cholesterol & triglycerides, may cause new onset of diabetes, exacerbate existing diabetes by incr. blood glucose. Risk of bleeding in hemophiliacs, accelerate bone loss ->osteoporosis. Lipodystrophy also
Protease inhibitors
What is the plasma made of?
Water, Proteins,
What portion of blood is plasma?
50 - 55%
What portion of blood is made up of formed elements
45 - 50%
normal values for CBC
normal values for Hct
normal values for Hgb
15 grams
normal values for Neutrophils
57 - 67%
What are the three most numerous plasma proteins
Albumin53% , Globulins43% , Fibrinogen ~4%
What are the three classes of formed elements
Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, Platelets
Megaloblast Anemias(Macrocytic-Normochromic)
Pernicious Anemia (B12), Folate deficiency
which anemia is IF dependent
Pernicious Anemia
name the Microcytic-Hypochromic Anemia
iron defic, sideroplastic
name the 4 Normocytic-Normochromic Anemias
aplastic, post hemorhegic, hemolytic, Anemia of chronic disorder
What is the Virchow triad?
endothelial injury, circulatory stasis, hypercoagulable
fro heparin what labs will you monitor?
what are the labs that you monitor with coumadin
PT and INR
what disorder has the tall tale sign of bleeding that looks like coffee grounds
Manifestation of gastritis?
Vague abd pain
Tenderness Bleeding
Discomfort with food
Superficial ulcers
erosions of top layer, no involvement of muscularis
True ulcers
extend through muscularis, cause bleeding
Which location is most common for PUD?
PUD - Pain begins
30 min - 2 hours after eating
what disorder has these manifistations: Stomach is empty
How do we test for PUD
stool, blood, edoscopy, and breath test
We treat PUD with
what drug -coats the stomach to prevent acids and ulcers. and you can mix the tablet as a "slurry"
what receptor sites in the stomach will cause vasoconstriction so severely so that ischemia will occur.
Alpha 1 adrenergic
Curling ulcers
from burns
Cushing ulcer
head trauma, brain surgery
Dumping syndrome
food will not get fully digested
Anemia after post-gastrectomy-why?
b/c IF affected, now have B12 anemia
Afferent loop obstruction
obstruction that can occur because the duodenum and the jejunum are now stretched and distended because of a small stomach