biology 103 final exam review-pearson questions (8)

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which H+ has just passed through the inner mitochondrial membrane by facilitated diffusion?
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Terms in this set (25)
the electron acceptors can transport H+ across the membrane, which is otherwise impermeable to H+

chemiosmosis relies on the properties of the membrane that prevent hydrogen ions (H+) from flowing down their concentration gradient. hydrogen ions are permitted to reenter the cell across the membrane through ATP synthase, which captures their potential energy and uses it to synthesize ATP
marathon runners are long-distance runners (marathons are races that are 26.2 miles long). studies have shown that the muscles of marathon runners contain an abundance of slow-twitch muscle cells. which of the following statements about these fibers is true?slow-twitch fibers have lots of mitochondria to make ATP aerobicallywhen an organism such as a yeast lives by fermentation, it converts the pyruvate from glycolysis into a different compound, such as alcohol. why doesn't it secrete the pyruvate directly?the conversion is needed to regenerate the molecules needed for glycolysissome friends are trying to make wine in their basement. they've added yeast to a sweet grape juice mixture and have allowed the yeast to grow. after several days they find that sugar levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there's no alcohol in the mixture. the most likely explanation is that the...mixture needs less oxygen because yeasts only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygenwhen did the level of oxygen in earth's atmosphere become high enough to sustain aerobic respiration?2.7 billion years agowhich of the following statements regarding glycolysis is false?glycolysis is considered to be an ancient metabolic system because it is the most efficient metabolic pathway for ATP synthesiswhen proteins are used as a source of energy for the body, the proteins...are converted mainly into intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycleif you consume 1g of each of the following, which will yield the most ATP?fatthe conversion of CO2 and H2O into organic compounds using energy from light is called...photosynthesisif ATP accumulates in a inhibition slows down cellular respirationthe O2 required for __________ is supplied by_________________cellular respiration...breathing breathing supplies the O2 required for cellular respiration, and also disposes of the CO2 produced as a waste product during cellular respirationmost bats are inactive during the day (this is known as torpor) and feed during the night. the graph below shows hypothetical data for a bat species. why does the relationship between metabolic rate and temperature exist?a by-product of cellular respiration is heatwhen a car engine burns gasoline, the results of the reaction are similar to when cells burn glucose. both reactions release carbon dioxide and water. in cells, the chemical energy in food is converted to ATP and heat. in a moving car, the chemical energy in gasoline is converted to __________kinetic energy and heat about 25% of the energy released from the gasoline consumed by a car is converted to the kinetic energy of the moving car. the rest is given off as heat, which explains why car engines become so hothow do cells capture the energy released by cellular respiration?they produce ATPoxidative phosphorylation could not occur without glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, because _____________these two stages supply the electrons needed for the electron transport chain the main function of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle is to supply oxidative phosphorylation with electrons carried by NADH and FADH2in the first stage of cellular respiration (glycolysis), two molecules of pyruvate are produced. in the remaining stages of cellular respiration, a number of additional products are produced, such as __________. these other stages occur in the __________ATP...mitochondria ATP, CO2, and H2O are the products of cellular respiration. as pyruvate is oxidized further, it is moved into a mitochondrion where the remaining stages of cellular respiration occur