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Terms in this set (85)
The man that introduced the new constitution of equal rights in Saint-Domingue
New Constitution of Saint - Domingue
-completely abolished slavery
-declared all citizens equal
-named himself general for life
-declared all people in Saint-Domingue French citizens
What was Louverture's goal of the new constitution?
wanted to remain a French colony with a special status, receiving its own autonomy from France, but still receiving the benefits it received from France (trade status and military protection)
how did the people respond to the new constitution?
the French people and the masses of Saint-Domingue both were not pleased by the new constitution
when did louvertrue implement the constitution
although he sent in a draft to french government, he enforced it before it was approved
what was louvertrure's top priorities?
to resurrect Satint-Domingue's economy ---> new economic system to reinforce the traditional plantation system
what were louveture's economic policies?
in order to be most efficient, he concentrated the land on large estate of 3.3 acres or larger ---> most citizens could no longer hold land
what happened to those whose land was too small?
they ere forced to work a mandatory number of hours on the plantation with a WAGE
who enforced these new regimes
an army officer who encouraged his soldiers to use violence against uncooperative workers
how did the former enslave people in Saint-Domingue respond to the new laws?
former enslaved people: a way to reimpose slavery under a new name
who owned the land?
whites, mulattoes, and revolutionary leaders
who worked on the land
slaves (slaves gained the right to own and farm on their land upon freedom -- but instead they had to work on it)
what led to the rumors that Louveture wanted to reintroduce the slave trade?
he welcomed back the exiled white planters
how did the slaves show their opposition?
-ignored the laws and spent more time working ont heir personal fields
what happened in the north because of the new constitution?
-called for distribution of land among the people
-charged Louveture with exploiting the masses for French benefit
-called for the extermination of whites and independence from France (scared that slavery would return)
---> rebelled, led by one of Louveture's officials (General Moise)
how did the beginning of the rebellion end?
louveture put down the rebellion in the north and executed the rebels without a trial, but dissatisfaction continued
what did Bonaparte think of the new constitution?
Bonaparte was outraged by louveture's constitution, thinking it was too close to being a declaration of independence.
how did France respond to Louveture's constitution?
they were upset because there was no place for them to represent themselves in govt
how did France respond to the constitution?
they saw it as a hostile move and an insult to france ---> thought of reinstating slavery in French Caribbean colonies and he send a MASSIVE force to invade and retake Satin-Domingue
what were the instructions to regain Saint-Domingue
to capture the leaders, disarm the masses, and reimpose the plantation system
how did the war for independence begin?
-France captured the south of the colony
-people of Saint-Domingue identified themselves as french citizens ---> joined the french army
the religion of majority of the people in Saint-Domingue that includes a mix of African religions with Catholicism
abolition of Vodou
it greatly upset the masses, and promoted opposition to louveture
why did the louveture's army move to the french army so quickly
a. they did not know bonapart's true intentions of reinstating slavery bc they trusted that he would stay true to the revolution
b. upset with louveture: outlawing Vodou, imposition of plantaion system, and undemocratic ways of government
one of louveture's top generals who joined French forces --> made louveture negotiate with Leclerc bc he realized his position was weakening
Louveture's agreement with Leclerc
Louveture agreed to retire from the war to his family in the countryside
how did Leclerc betray their agreement?
he tricked him into a false meeting, later capturing and putting him on a ship to Europe where he died in a french jailcell
how france use other foreign powers?
they formed a alliance with Britain and the US to support the revolution on their behalf, in order to reinstate slavery so they would fight against free slaves
why the the US and Britain join with France?
they fought against abolition because they did not want to promote their own institutions of slavery
how long did Bonaparte expect the campaign to take?
only 3 months
how was France suffering in the war?
two thousand European troops were in the hospital: yellow fever, tropical diseases, and wounded
how long did the campaign actually take?
who was a major force who fought against the french?
former maroons who weren't part of louveture's revolutionary army
semi-permanent communities of escaped slaves
what were the maroons fighting for?
they were fighting for land and complete abolition of the colonial system (did not trust the revolutionary leaders bc many were now landowners and supporters of the plantation system)
why did the colonists resist disarmament?
bc they though that if they had their weapons taken from them, they would also lose their freedom
why did the people of Saint-Domingue not trust the french?
there were rumors that Bonaparte reinstated slavery in other French colonies
who led the general uprising?
where did the french resistance start?
it began in the south and traveled across the colony
what was the laborers objective
they wanted to expel the french because they refused to accept the return of slavery
how did the guerrilla bands gain popularity?
bc Louveture's soldiers were now aware of his true intentions so they joined the underdogs, taking advantage of their gained positions and weapons (now involved nearly the entire population)
how did the french respond to the resistance
they implemented a campaign of brutal TERROR to put down the revolt (similar to french rev)
examples of french terror
-increased the frequency and severity of their violence against blacks and mulattoes
-public mass executions to discourage workers to join the revolt
-drowning, burning, and hangings
how did the resistance respond to the terror?
it strengthened the will to rebel against the french
who joined the resistance?
the revolutionary leaders: Dessalines (commander in chief), Chrisophe, and Louveture's other generals
how did the guerrilla bands respond to the participation of the revolutionary leaders?
still distrustful so they continued to fight independently
what did dessalines' troops fight to do?
subdue the maroon armies
what campaign did dessalines lead?
he started a massive campaign to defeat the french:
-bruned as many plantations and towns to the ground
who took over after Leclerc died of yellow fever?
the commander who replaced Leclerc, famous for his violent and brutal treatment of colored people
what weakened the french army?
-yellow fever was killing majority of the soldiers
-low on food supplies
who created the Haitian flag?
How was the Haitian flag formed?
ripped apart the white from the french tricolor to signify the unity of the mulattoes and blacks (red and blue)
why did the french sell their territory in the north to the US
because they needed to pay off several debts caused by the war
what did the Louisianna Purchase symbolize?
France's formal withdrawal from the western hemisphere
what did france lose after the Haitian revolution?
-lost ~30,000 troops
-lost the most lucrative and wealth-producing colonies of the world
what did dessalines declare after the revolution?
he declared the colonies independence --> first nation of formers slaves and second independent country of the world
Declaration of Independence
officially abolished the colony of Saint-Domingue, re-establishing its native name of Haiti
what did dessalines order after his victory?
the slaughter of all french residence in Haiti to remove Haiti of french presence to ensure that slavery could not come back
what happens to dessalines in 1804
crowned Emperor Jacques I of Haitit
what was one of dessalines' moves as an emperor?
ratified Haiti's first constitution in order to strengthen national unity:
deemed all Haitian citizens black and reaffirmed permanent abolition of slavery
what happened in the aftermath of the revolution?
Haiti was ISOLATED: they defeated Hispaniola, France, lobbied England, Spain, and the US --> commercially and diplomatically alone
what desperate actions did Haiti do?
they were forced to enter disadvantageous trade agreements
why did Haiti struggle to establish itself as a new country
-bc of the war they had a poor economy
-infrastructure was deliberately destroyed to weaken the Europeans(sugar fields, mills, tools, farm equipment, storage, and slave quarters)
---> NO INDUSTRY TO REBUILD THEMSELVES
-international hostility (how are they going to protect their ind.) -- threatened by Saint-Domingue under French and Spanish control --> unify it with the rest of Haiti
-France and US refused to recognize its independence
what were the conditions of Haiti's independence from France?
they were forced to agree to pay for the damages caused to French during the Revolution (including lost slaves and property) and participate in a special trade with them ----> debt
why did Haiti agree to France's terms of independence?
-end French military aggression
-Haiti's economic growth relied on international trade
-diplomatic recognition was key
forced to enter unfavorable trade agreements bc they were desperate for trading partners
-to pay France --> HIGH INTEREST LOANS --> difficult for France to establish itself economically
immediate effects of the revolution (1791)
inspired oppressed people throughout the Caribbean, Nort and Latin America to revolt (outlawed immigration from Saint-Domingue to end influence in slave communities)
effects after achieving freedom
slaved communities continued to address their struggles from slavery --> slave owners elsewhere committed themselves to preventing what happened in Haiti reoccur
how did the Haitian revolution affect the course of world history?
-convinced Bonaparte to sell Louisiana, doubled US
-expanded slavery in some places (US from Louisiana purchase) and increased production to make up for loss of Saint-Domingue of sugar --> more slavery
-end of slavery in Chile, Argentinia, Britain's Caribbean colonies etc. (Haiti welcomed slave refugees)
-supported and inspired people in Latin America to fight against colonialsim
-first nation in a movement against European colonists
what was the immediate effect of the Haitian revoltuion in Haiti?
-provided freedom and dignity to the citizens
-Louveture's constitution was the first to address human rights to all
-gave masses of Haiti a claim to land although they tried to reinstate workers on plantations, it never worked
how did the Haitian revolution affect Haiti?
-declined from one of the world's wealthiest colonies to one of its most impoverished countries --> degradation of Haiti's environment, conflict over land ownership, and debt to france
-economic weakness made it easy for the US to occupy Haiti
how did slavery begin in Haiti?
relied on crops, so when the Spanish took over they forced them to work on sugar plantations (not easy to produce)
what was society like before the revolution?
~28,000 mulattoes and free blacks
---> all the burden was on the slaves
the former slaves who had civil rights but not political power (DO have property) -- similar to beugeiseu
where was all the political power before the revolution?
who were the comandears?
the highest ranked slaves who could buy their freedom and had power of the slave resistence
why was life so hard in the maroon communities?
because they had no food source so they had to smuggle crops from plantations
why did the slave owners work their slaves to death?
because they thought it would be more profitable to use all they could and get a new "shipment" than keeping the same slaves
mixed race, wealthy, slave bearing amn who went to france to study.
He later joins the revolutionary groups, trying to expand the political rights of the Frenchmen
Spanish decide to make him an example via public execution
Become a symbol of colonial revolution
A leader of a maroon community and Vodou priest:
he plans an uprising in which the comandears begin to burn plantations in northern Haiti
---> popular ---> rebels gain power in the north ---> slaves want control of Haiti
what is happening in France in the 1790's?
1792 (Legislative Assembly): grants full citizenship to the free men of color
Aug. 1793: Southanox frees slaves in the north
Oct 1793: free slaves in the rest of island
Feb 1794 (Convention): solidifies Southanox's actions (frees slave and give them political and civil rights wo ind.)
1801: Toussant Louveture sends draft of new constitution
Napoleon's brother sent to take back Saint-Domingue and reinstate slavery in response to Louveture's constitution
what did Napoleon plan to do once Leclerc suppressed the rebels enough?
reinstate slavery in Haiti when the time was right as he did on other islands
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