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lymphatic vessels, lymphoid tissues

2 semi-independent parts

lymphatic vessels

transport fluids that have escaped from the blood vessels back to the blood

lymphoid tissues and organs

scattered throughout the body; house phagocytic cells and lymphocytes

phagocytic cells,lymphocytes

play roles in body defense and resistance to disease

lymphatic vessels

pick up lymph and return it to bloodstream in a one-way system, flowing towards the heart


excess tissue/interstitial fluid


another name for lymphatic vessels

lymph capillaries

microscopic, blind-ended; spider-web between the tissue cells and blood capillaries in the loose connective tissue of the body that absorb the leaked fluid; very permeable

lymphatic collecting vessels

large lymphatic vessels through which lymph is transported from lymph capillaries

right lymphatic duct, thoracic duct

large ducts in thoracic region through which lymph is returned to the nervous system

right lymphatic duct

drains lymph from right arm, and right side of the head, and thorax

thoracic duct

receives lymph from areas where right lymphatic duct does not drain from

subclavian vein

right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct empty into this on their own side of the body

muscular and respiratory pumps

transport lymph

lymph nodes

help protects body by removing foreign material from the lymphatic stream and by producing lymphocytes; filters lymph


function in immune response

inguinal, axillary, cervical

where large clusters of lymph nodes are found


located within nodes; destroy and engulf bacteria viruses, and other foreign substances in the lymph before it is returned to blood


where lymphocytes are found

lymph nodes

become swollen during infection

afferent lymphatic vessels

where the lymph enters the convex side of the node


lymph flows through here while in nodes


where lymph exits nodes

efferent lymphatic vessels

how lymph exits hilus

more afferent vessels than efferent

why flow of lymph is slow through node


located in left side of abdominal cavity and extends to curl around the anterior aspect of the stomach


blood-rich organ that filters and cleanses blood of bacteria, viruses, and other debris; destroys RBC's and returns some of their products to the liver; stores platelets and acts as blood reservoir; in fetus, it is an important hematopoictic site


produced in adult spleen

thymus gland

functions at peak levels during youth

thymus gland

found low in throat, overlying heart

thymus gland

produces hormone thymosin and others that function in the programming of certain lymphocytes to carry out protective roles in the body


small masses of lymphatic tissue that ring the pharynx, where they are found in the mucosa


trap and remove any backteria or other foreign pathogens from entering the throat


tonsils become congested with bacteria and become red, swollen, and sore

peyer's patches

resemble tonsils; formed in the wall of the small intestines

peyer's patches

prevents bacteria from penetrating intestinal walls

mucosa associated lymphatic tissue

tonsils and peyer's patches are part of this

mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue

collection of small lymphoid tissues

mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue


mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue

protects upper respirator and digestive tracts from attacks of foreign mattering entering those cavities

surface membrane barriers, cells and chemicals

nonspecific body defenses

non specific body defense

responds immediately to protect the body from all antigens

surface membrane chemicals

skin and mucous membrane line body cavities and produce protective chemicals

acid pH of skin secretions

inhibits bacterial growth


contains chemicals that are toxic to bacteria

stomach mucosa

secretes HCl and protein-digesting enzymes

protein-digesting enzymes

kill pathogens


disease-causing microorganisms


contained in saliva and lacrimal fluid


enzyme that destroys bacteria

cells and chemicals

second line of defense


macrophage and neutrophil

natural killer

attacks target cell's membrane and releases a lytic chemical, which causes the target cell's membrane and nucleus to disintegrate

inflammatory response

triggered whenever body tissues are injured

inflammatory response

redness, heat, swelling, pain

histamine and kinins

inflammatory chemicals that are released when cells are injured

inflammatory chemicals

cause blood vessels in the involved area to dilate and capillaries to become leaky

inflammatory chemicals

activate pain receptors

inflammatory chemicals



the attraction of white blood cells to the site of inflammation

complements and interferon

antimicrobial chemicals


enhances the effectiveness of both nonspecific and specific responses


refers to a group of at least 20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood in an inactive state

complete fixation

the activation of when complement becomes attached to foreign cells

membrane attack complexes


membrane attack complexes

one result of complete fixation

membrane attack complexes

produces lesions/holes in the foreign cell's surface, which allows water to rush into the cell, causing it to burst


activated complement amplifies the inflammatory response and causes the foreign cells to become sticky so they are easier to phagocytizie


small proteins secreted by virus-infected cells


help defend cells that are not yet invaded, by binding to their membrane receptors, hindering the ability of viruses to multiply within these cells


systemic response to invading microorganisms; WBs release pyrogens


resets the internal thermostat in the hypothalamus during a fever

mild/moderate fever

beneficial because they cause the liver and spleen to gather up iron and zinc and increase the metabolic rate of tissue cells in general, speeding up the repair process

high fever

dangerous because excess heat denatures enzymes and proteins

immune system

specific body defense

immune system

mounts an attack against particular foreign substances; results in immunity


a highly specific resistance to disease

antigen-specific, systemic, has memory

three important aspects of the immune system


any substance capable of provoking an immune response


are considered non-self


our own cells have antigenic markers on them, but as we developed, our bodies took inventory of them, so they are recognized as "self"

lymphocytes, macrophages

cells of the immune system

b-lymphocytes and t-lymphocytes

two types of lymphocytes

b cells


t cells


b cells and t cells

both start out as the same immature lymphocyte, differentiate depending where in the body they receive immunocompetence


capable of responding to a specific antigen by binding to it

t cells

arise from lymphocytes that migrate to the thymus, where they undergo a maturation process of 2-3 days, directed by thymic hormones

t cells

only those with the sharpest ability to identify foreign antigens survive. The ones capable of binding strongly with self-antigens are weeded out and destroyed

b cells

develop immunocompetence in bone marrow


determine what specific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and resist

lymph nodes, spleen, and loose connective tissue

where t and b cells migrate after becoming immunocompetent where their encounters with antigens occur


arise from monocytes formed in the bone marrow


become widely distributed in lymphoid organs and connective tissue


not only engulf particles, but also "present" fragments of those antigens on the surface, so immunocompetent t cells can recognize the antigen


act as antigen presenters

killer macrophages

activated t cells release chemicals that cause macrophages to become insatiable phagocytes


tend to remain fixed in the lymphoid organs; whereas t cells circulate the body

humoral immune response

provided by antibodies present in the body's fluids

clonal selection

after an antigen binds to a b cell's surface receptors, it becomes fully mature, by becoming sensitize/activated and undergoing this


the lymphocyte begins to grow and then multiplies rapidly to form an army of cells identical to itself and bearing the same antigen specific receptors, the resulting family of identical cells descended from the same ancestor cell called this

plasma cells

most clones become these

plasma cells

produce antibodies

memory cells

the b cells that do not become plasma cells become these

memory cells

capable of responding to the same antigen at later meetings with it

active immunity

naturally acquired during bacterial and viral infections, during which you may develop symptoms of the disease

active immunity

artificially acquired when you receive vaccines


most contain dead or attenuated pathogens


living but extremely weakened

passive immunity

antibodies are not made by your plasma cells, they are required from an immune human or animal donor; since your b cells were never challenged, memory does not get made and protection ceases when the antibodies break down

passive immunity

conferred naturally on fetus when mother's antibodies cross the placenta and enter the fetal circulation, and after birth through breastfeeding; baby is protected from all antigens to which the mother is currently being exposed to

passive immunity

conferred artificially when one receives immune serum or gamma globolin

passive immunity

conferred artificially when scientists use monoclonal antibodies for research, clinical testing for diagnostic purposes, and treating certain cancers

immune serum

poisonous snake bites, botulism, rabies, tetanus-because these diseases will kill a person before active immunity will be established

gamma globolin

given after exposure to hepatitis

monoclonal antibodies

produced by descendants of a single cell and exhibiting specificity for one antigen


aka immunoglobuuns


produced by plasma cells; specific for a particular antigen


antibody classes


can fix complement; first one released to plasma from plasma cells; potent agglutinating agent


aka secretory IgA


found mainly in mucus and other secretions that bathe the body surfaces


plays major role in preventing pathogens from gaining entry into the body


important in activation of B cells


most abundant Ig in blood plasma


only one that can cross the placental barrier; can fix complement


binds to basophils, triggering release of histamine, mediating inflammation and certain allergic responses

antibody function

inactive antigens by complement fixation, neutralization, agglutination, and precipitation


occurs when antibodies bind to specific cites on bacterial exotoxins or on viruses that can cause cell injury, thus blocking the harmful effects of the exotoxin or virus

bacterial exotoxin

toxic chemicals secreted by bacteria


occurs when so much agglutination/clumping occurs that the antigen-antibody complex settles out of solution

cellular immune response

provided by t-lymphocytes

cellular immune response

activated to form clones by binding with a recognized antigen; however unlike B cells, t cells cannot bind with free antigens, they must be presented by a macrophage

cytoxic, helper, suppressor, memory

four types of clones (t cells)


killer t cell


t cells that specialize in killing virus-infected, cancer, or foreign graft cells; one way is by binding to them and inserting a toxic chemical into the foreign cell's plasma membrane, rupturing the target cells


t cells that act as the directors or managers of the immune system


t cells that once activated, circulate through the body, recruiting other cells to fight invaders


t cells that release cytokine chemicals that act indirectly to rid the body of antigens by stimulating cytotoxic t cells and b cells to grow and divide, attracting other types of protective white blood cells to the area, and enhancing the ability of macrophages to engulf and destroy microorganisms


t cells that release chemicals that suppress the activity of t and b cells


t cells that are vital for winding down and finally stopping the immune response after an antigen has been destroyed


t cell that helps prevent uncontrolled or unnecessary immune system activity


t cells that remain behind to provide the immunological memory for each antigen encountered and enable to body to respond quickly to its subsequent invasions

organ transplant and rejection

after transplant, patient needs to take immunosuppressant drugs so t hey won't reject transplanted tissue; this could cause lethal bacterial or viral infections

allergies, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders

disorders of immunity


aka hypersensitivities


abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system causes tissue damage as it fights of a perceived "threat" that would otherwise be harmless to the body

immediate hypersensitivity

usually occurs within seconds of exposure and lasts about half an hour; histamine released

immediate hypersensitivity

can cause runny nose, watery eyes, hives, asthma

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