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Arts and Humanities
Notes for English 1301
Terms in this set (28)
What are the 8 steps in the writing process?
Identifying your Thesis
Support the Thesis with Evidence
Organize the Evidence
Write the Paragraphs of the First Draft
Revise Meaning, Structure, and Paragraph Development
Revise Sentences and Words
Edit and Proofread
What is the rhetorical situation?
Any set of circumstances that involves at least one person using some sort of communication to modify the perspective of at least one other person.
List and define the different elements of the rhetorical situation.
A text (An piece of communication)
An author (Someone who presents the communication)
An audience (A recipient of communication)
Purposes (The varied reasons both authors and audiences communicate)
A setting (The time, place, and environment surrounding a moment of communication)
Name 3 types of prewriting.
What is a thesis statement?
One sentence that expresses the main idea of a research paper or essay, such as an expository or argumentative essay. It makes a claim, directly answering a question.
What are the 4 things that a thesis statement should NOT do?
Guard against a simplistic thesis.
Avoid an overly narrow thesis.
Don't avoid the work on the thesis.
Avoid a biographical thesis. (Biographical thesis is to infuse a person's life event to the thesis)
What is evidence?
The availability body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid.
What types of evidence are there?
What are the qualities of good evidence?
Relevant and Unified
What are the 4 types of organization (list and define them)?
Chronological Approach - Supporting material is arranged in a clear time sequence, usually from what happened first to what happened last. Occasionally, the order can be resequenced to create flashback or flashforward effects.
Spatial Approach - You discuss details as they occur in space or from certain locations.
Emphatic Approach - The most compelling evidence is saved for last. This arrangement is based on the principle that people remember best what they experience last. Sometimes, an essay captures the audience's attention by presenting the most important point first.
Simple-to-Complex Approach - Proceeds from relatively simple concepts to more complex ones. By starting with easy-to-grasp, generally accepted evidence, you establish rapport with your readers and assure them that the essay is firmly grounded in shared experience.
When should you use each type of organization?
Chronological Approach - Narration or process analysis are most likely to be organized chronologically.
Spatial Approach - This strategy is appropriate for description.
Emphatic Approach - It's effective in argumentation-persuasion essays, in essays developed through examples, and in pieces involving comparison-contrast, division-classification, or causal analysis.
Simple-to-Complex Approach - This strategy is used when using complex ideas, so you start off with something simple.
What is a topic sentence?
A sentence that expresses the main idea of the paragraph in which it occurs.
What is the difference between revising and proofreading/editing?
During revising, you add, cut, move, or change information in order to improve the content. During proofreading, you take a second look at the words and sentences you used to express your ideas and fix any problems in grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure.
What is illustration?
A decoration, interpretation or visual explanation of a text, concept or process, designed for integration in published media.
What is the difference between abstract and concrete words?
Abstract words refer to intangible qualities, ideas, and concepts. Concrete words refer to tangible, qualities or characteristics things we know through our senses.
What is the difference between denotation and connotation?
Denotation is the direct definition of the word that you find in the dictionary. Connotation is the emotional suggestions of a word, that is not literal.
What are sensory details?
Descriptive words that appeal to the five senses - using imagery, they describe how we see, hear, touch, taste, and smell the world around us.
What's the difference between comparing and contrasting?
To contrast something is to look for differences among two or more elements, but to compare is to look for similarities.
What is a Rogerian Argument?
A negotiating strategy in which common goals are identified and opposing views are described as objectively as possible in an effort to establish common ground and reach an agreement.
What are the 3 rhetorical appeals (list and define them)?
Ethos - An argument that appeals to the audience by emphasizing the speaker's credibility and authority.
Pathos - An argument that appeals to the audience by using their emotions.
Logos - An argument that appeals to the audience by using facts and statistics.
How can someone establish credibility in his or her paper?
Convince the reader that you know what you're talking about and that you're worth listening to. You will come across as knowledgeable and trustworthy if you present a logical, reasoned argument that takes opposing views into account. Make sure that your appeals to emotion aren't excessive. Overwrought emotionalism undercuts credibility.
What is the difference between inductive and deductive logic?
Deductive reasoning uses top-down approach, whereas inductive reasoning uses a bottom-up approach. Deductive reasoning moves from generalized statement to a valid conclusion, whereas inductive reasoning moves from specific observations to a generalization.
What are fallacies?
Fallacies are common errors in reasoning that will undermine the logic of your argument. It can be either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points, and are often identified because they lack evidence that supports their claim.
What types of fallacies are there (list and define them)?
Post Hoc Fallacy - Occurs when you conclude that a cause-effect relationship exists because one event proceed another.
Non Sequitur Fallacy - An more blatant muddying of cause-effect relationships. In this case, a conclusion is drawn that has no logical connection to the evidence cited.
Ad Hominem Argument - Occurs when someone attacks a person rather than a point of view.
Faulty Authority - An argument that states that we should listen to the opinion of a false authority figure, who is framed as a credible source on the topic.
Begging the Question - Involves failure to establish proof for a debatable point. The writer expects readers to accept as given a premise that's actually controversial.
False Analogy - Disregards significant dissimilarities and wrongly implies that because two things share some characteristics, they are therefore alike in all respects.
Either/Or Fallacy - Occurs when you assume that a particular viewpoint or course of action can have only one of two diametrically opposed outcomes - either totally this or totally that.
Red Herring - An intentional discretion from the issue - a ploy to deflect attention from the matter being discussed.
What does MLA stand for?
Modern Language Association
According to the MLA, how and where should you cite your sources?
According to MLA style, you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your paper. All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text.
What is plagiarism?
The practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own.
What are the consequences of plagiarism?
Expelled from your course, college and/or university
Your work will not be accepted
Expulsion from your academic institution, in some cases permanent expulsion.
Legal actions (fines, penalties, etc.)
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