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Biology Lecture Quiz #3
Terms in this set (48)
Cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus and consisting of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
2 copies of a duplicated chromosome attached to each other by proteins at the centromere. 2 sister chromatids make up 1 chromosome. Sister chromatids separate during mitosis or meiosis II.
process of nuclear division and distribution of DNA in eukaryotic cells, conventionally divided into four stages.
division of cytoplasm to form two separate, but genetically identical daughter cells.
Mitotic (M) phase
phase of the cell cycle that includes both mitosis and cytokinesis. Usually shortest part of the cell.
non-dividing period of the cell cycle in which chromosomes, cytoplasm, and organelles are duplicated and cell size usually increases. Approximately 90% of the cell cycle
first growth phase, prior to DNA synthesis.
synthesis phase in which DNA is replicated.
Second growth phase, after DNA synthesis
Chromatin condenses into chromosomes and becomes visible. Nucleoi and nuclear membrane disappear. The spindle begins to form.
Chromosomes line up at the equator or metaphase plate of spindle
Cohesion proteins and centromere are cleaved and chromosomes separates. Daughter chromosomes move towards opposite poles.
Chromosomes become less dense and visible. Nucleoli and nuclear membrane reappear. The spindle begins to breakdown (depolymerize).
division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis.
process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching in of plasma membrane.
shallow groove around the cell in the cell surface near the equator.
membrane bounded, flattened sac located at the equator of a dividing plant cell inside which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
Do not follow normal pathways that control cell division, dividing excessively while invading other tissues. Cancer cells are immortal; dividing indefinitely if a continuous supply of nutrients exists.
generation of offspring from a single parent, occurring without the fusion of gametes; in most cases, offspring are genetically identical to parent. Maintains cells in the multicellular organisms. Maintains certain spp of organisms. Ex: Komodo dragon; earth worm.
generation of offspring in which gametes from two parents fuse and give rise to genetically unique offspring. Maintains a constant chromosome number. Creates genetic diversity in offspring.
type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of 2 rounds of cell division, but only one round of DNA replication; results in haploid cells (gametes). Insures chromosomes number is cut in half. Increases genetic diversity.
pairing and physical connection of duplicated homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis.
reciprocal exchange of genetic material between non-sister chromatids during prophase 1 of meiosis.
homologous chromosomes separate and move along spindle fibers to opposite poles during anaphase 1 of meiosis.
each pair of homologous chromosomes segregates independently of each other during anaphase 1.
Chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual and all the characteristics that accompany the gender.
XY (not homologous)
error in mitosis or meiosis in which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to properly separate from each other. Ex: bananas, wheat.
discovered DNA's ability to transform non-pathogenic bacteria cells into pathogenic bacteria cells.
by studying bacteria uncovered DNA as the molecule responsible for transformation (not RNA or proteins) in all living organisms.
change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
Hershey & Chase (1952)
found that when a phage infected a bacterium, only DNA entered the bacterium, not protein
a virus that infects a bacterium; protein coat surrounding DNA
The two parental strands reassociate after acting as templates for new strands, thus restoring the parental double helix.
DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand (parent) and one new strand
New complementary DNA continuously synthesized along the template strand towards the replication fork (5' -> 3' direction).
discontinuously synthesized DNA strand, elongating by okazaki fragments away from the replication fork (5' ->3' direction).
DNA replication-initiation(I)-Replication fork
y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecules where parental strands are being unwounded and new strands are being synthesized.
Enzyme that untwists the DNA double helix at the replication forks, separating the parental strands, making them available as template strands.
DNA replication-initiation(I)-Single-strand binding protein
protein that binds to the unpaired DNA, stabilizing and separating them as they serve as templates for complementary strands of DNA.
protein that breaks, swivels, and rejoins DNA strands; helps to relieve strain in the double helix ahead of the replication fork.
short strech of RNA strand that prepares the template strands for the complementary DNA strand.
enzyme that makes RNA primer, using parental DNA strands as a template.
DNA replication-Synthesis (II)-DNA polymerase
Enzyme that catalyes elongation of a new DNA by the addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of an existing chain. At least 11 different polymerases play major roles in DNA replication. 50 nucleotides are added per second in human cells.
DNA replication-Proofreading and repair (IV)
DNA polymerase proofreads each nucleotide as it is attached to the strand.
DNA replication-Proofreading and repair (IV)-Mismatched repair
occurs when nucleotides in the new strand are inadvertently matched with the wrong nucleotide in a template strand.
DNA replication-Proofreading and repair (IV)-Nuclease
enzyme that cuts DNA, removing one or a few bases or completely hydrolyzing DNA into its component nucleotides.
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