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Semester Exam Study Guide Geography - Statehood
Terms in this set (148)
Who was most responsible for the creation of Georgia?
What was Oglethorpe's main reason for seeking a 13th colony?
Savannah and Altamaha Rivers
What were the two rivers that formed the northern and southern boundaries of Georgia?
Why did King George allow Oglethorpe to establish Georgia?
Charity, defense, and economic reasons
What was the defensive reason for settling Georgia?
It would act as a buffer between SC and Spanish Florida.
The belief that Georgia would and should provide Great Britain with raw materials that it currently had to buy elsewhere.
Indian chief Oglethorpe befriended before settling on Yamacraw Bluff.
Acted as an interpreter and diplomat for Oglethorpe.
What was the reason Oglethorpe chose the site he did for Savannah?
Yamacraw Bluff was near the mouth of a major river.
They came from Austria. They opposed slavery. They came for religious reasons.
The river along which the Salzburgers settled Ebenezer and then New Ebenezer.
Why did the Salzburgers abandon Ebenezer and settle New Ebenezer?
The land was too marshy and poor for crops.
Who were the Highland Scots?
The group recruited because they were fierce fighters who opposed slavery. They settled the town of Darien.
The river along which the Highland Scots settled.
Why were the Highland Scots recruited to settle south of Savannah?
They were fierce fighters who would defend the colony's southern border.
What did the Highland Scots and the Salzburgers have in common?
They were both strongly opposed to slavery.
Who were the malcontents?
Those people who frequently complained about the colony's policies.
Year that Oglethorpe was granted a charter for the colony of Georgia.
This religion was banned which did not bother the colonists, because the Spanish were Catholic.
How did the trustees work around King George's rules?
They passed regulations rather than laws.
Why did the earliest settlers become unhappy?
They were not as successful as South Carolinians who used slave labor.
Why did Oglethorpe face charges when he returned to England?
He had failed to capture St. Augustine in the War of Jenkin's Ear.
How long was Georgia a charter colony?
What was behind Great Britain's policy to build up it's gold supplies and expand trade?
Who was Georgia's first royal governor?
Who was Georgia's second royal governor?
Who was Georgia's third and final royal governor?
Royal governor at the time of Independence.
Who was James Wright?
Who ruled Georgia as a royal colony?
It was ruled directly by the king through one of his royal governors.
Which royal governor was recalled by parliament for being ineffective?
John Reynolds was recalled for ineffectiveness.
Which royal governor was a naturalist and scientist by trade and replaced John Reynolds?
How were land policies in colonial Georgia different under the royal governors?
Colonists were allowed to purchase large tracts of land.
What are the three primary crops that were produced in Georgia during the royal period.
rice, indigo, and tobacco
What were the ways an individual could acquire land during Georgia's royal period?
Through gift, grant, or purchase -- NOT by lottery.
What was the work of slaves in the royal period?
Slaves worked on farms, and in towns as field hands, carpenters and blacksmiths.
king of England
Who governed the royal colonies during the colonial period?
What is Georgia's first government as a royal colony?
Which governor contributed much to the defenses of the Georgia colony?
Describe the impact of the French and Indian War.
As a result of this war, England began to tax the colonists to pay its war debt.
How did Georgia's boundaries change after the French and Indian War?
The western boundary was extended all the way to the Mississippi River.
The Seven Years War
This was the name given to French and Indian War in Europe.
France and Great Britain
What are the two major countries involved in the treaty which ended the French and Indian War?
What were Georgia's best gains from the French and Indian War?
land, naval stores, timber, farm acreage, and new settlers
With whom were the Indians allied in the French and Indian War?
How did the ending of the French and Indian War contribute to problems between the colonists and the Indians?
Colonists moved into formerly French territories that were occupied by the Indians.
These two programs were designed to encourage settlers to move into unsettled parts of the state.
What is the headright system and the land lottery?
What did the British do to raise money to pay its war debt after the conclusion of the French and Indian War?
They began taxing the colonies.
How did Georgia benefit as a result of the French and Indian War?
Georgia's western border was extended to the Mississippi river.
What natural boundary was to be observed according to the Proclamation of 1763?
The Appalachian Mountains
The Proclamation of 1763 ordered that colonists were to remain where?
...on the eastern side of the Appalachian Mountains.
According to theProclamation of 1763, to what river was Georgia's southern boundary extended?
St. Mary's River
What was the reason for the Stamp Act?
England wanted to raise money to pay its war debts.
Who were the Liberty Boys?
A group that formed in Georgia in opposition to the Stamp Act.
What did the Liberty Boys do to demonstrate their anger over the Stamp Act?
They burned an effigy of a stamp master in the street.
What name did the colonists give the series of laws passed by Parliament that were meant to punish them for the Boston Tea Party?
The series of actions known as the Intolerable Acts included:
a ban on town meetings, closing of Boston Harbor, and the requirement to quarter British soldiers
Which action preceded the Intolerable Acts?
The colonists dumped tea into the Boston Harbor.
What was the response of colonists to the Intolerable Acts?
They held the First Continental Congress.
Instead of sending representatives to the First Continental Congress, Georgia did what?
They sent a petition to England protesting the Acts.
Who was the primary author of The Declaration of Independence?
What was the purpose of the Declaration of Independence?
It was list of the reasons the colonists were seeking independence.
The following three men from Georgia, Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton signed what document?
The Declaration of Independence
What was the name given to those colonists who opposed independence, and wanted to remain a part of England?
What was the name given to colonists who favored independence from England?
How did the French and Indian War lead to the American Revolution?
Great Britain was heavily in debt and began taxing the colonies to recover monies based on the idea that the war was necessary to protect the colonies from the French.
How did Great Britain's harsh policies hurt Georgia's economy?
The Sugar Act hurt Georgia's economy because Georgia traded a lot with sugar-producing countries.
How did Great Britain's victory in the French and Indian War contribute to problems between the colonists and Indians?
When the British gained French lands, colonists moved into the new territories which were occupied by the Indians.
Why was anti-British sentiment less in Georgia than the other colonies during the Revolutionary period?
Georgia was far younger as a colony and still needed much support from Great Britain.
Why did Georgia have a higher percentage of loyalists than other colonies?
Georgia was the youngest colony and therefore had many first generation colonists.
What was the outcome of the "Battle of the Rice Boats" incident?
The patriots temporarily drove the British from Savannah.
The governing body that had the most power as described in the "Rules and Regulations of 1776."
How would you describe the government set up under the "Rules and Regulations of 1776?"
It had three branches of government but no system of checks and balances.
With which group did most Native Americans align during the American Revolution?
Who was the trader who worked throughout the American Revolution to keep the Native Americans neutral?
How did Button Gwinnett die?
He was challenged to a duel after the failed attempt to take St. Augustine during the American Revolution, and was shot and killed.
What is the BEST explanation for why the Americans were never able to capture St. Augustine?
There was a lack of cooperation among commanders which led to poor execution of orders.
Why is Elijah Clarke important to Georgia's history?
He led American troops in the Battle of Kettle Creek in Georgia.
Who was the African American soldier recognized for his bravery at the Battle of Kettle Creek?
How was Austin Dabney recognized for his bravery following the Battle of Kettle Creek?
He was given land by the Georgia General Assembly.
At what Battle in Georgia during the American Revolution did Americans capture badly needed arms, munitions, and horses from the British?
Battle of Kettle Creek
The Battle of Kettle Creek took place during which armed conflict?
What role did Nancy Hart play in the American Revolution?
She single handedly captured several British soldiers.
Which nation helped the colonists attempt to retake Savannah from the British during the American Revolution?
Why was the capture and control of Savannah important to both the British and the Americans during the American Revolution?
Savannah was both the capital of Georgia and a deep water port.
What was the outcome of the Siege of Savannah?
The British remained in control of Savannah.
Why did the writers of the Articles of Confederation not allow the national government to tax its citizens?
Taxes were the reason they decided to declare independence from England.
How many branches did the national government have under the Articles of Confederation?
What was the relationships between the states like under the Articles of Confederation?
They were only loosely connected under a weak national government.
Which of the many weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to a meeting to discuss revising them?
The inability to regulate trade
What was the original purpose of the Constitutional Convention held in Philadelphia?
They met to fix the Articles of Confederation.
Of the four representatives from Georgia to the Constitutional Convention, which two actually signed the Constitution?
William Few and Abraham Baldwin
What was the role of Georgia representative, Abraham Baldwin, at the Constitutional Convention?
He voted with the small states which led to the Great Compromise.
Why was Georgia so quick to ratify the Constitution?
Georgians hoped that a stronger federal government would help with the Native Americans.
In what way was the Articles of Confederation and the Georgia Constitution of 1777 alike?
They both had a unicameral legislative branch.
What was a major difference between Georgia's first Constitution of 1777 and the United States' first constitution, the Articles of Confederation?
Georgia had three branches of government while the U.S. had only one branch.
Describe the U.S. government under the Articles of Confederation.
It had a weak federal government with limited power.
What are the Bill of Rights?
They are the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
What were bounty grants?
Following the American Revolution, for their service, Georgians who had fought in the state militia were given land.
What is the name of the first state sponsored public university in the United States?
The University of Georgia
Which religious denomination sent circuit riders from district to district to minister to churches in the area after the Revolutionary War?
What was a strength of Georgia's Constitution of 1777?
It had three branches of government.
Why did Georgia grant so little power to the governor in the Constitution of 1777?
In the past, the royal governors from England had all the power.
What did they call the first constitution of the United States of America?
The Articles of Confederation
What was a weakness of Georgia's first state constitution?
It established a unicameral legislature that had strong powers, including the power to appoint the governor and control his actions.
How many houses for the legislative branch of government were established by the 1787 U.S. Constitution?
Two- it is a bicameral body.
What was one area of agreement in the development of the government structure in 1787?
There was no conflict about the decision to divide the government into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
Which branch of state government was the most powerful under the Georgia constitution adopted in 1789?
The legislative branch
What is meant by the term, "land grant university," like the University of Georgia?
The land for the college was donated by the federal government.
What is the correct order of time periods that scientists classify native people living in the Americas as having lived?
Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian
Which time period means "very old" or "long ago" and took place during the ice age?
Which BEST explains why scientists have found so few Paleo sites in Georgia?
Paleo Indians were nomadic and therefore left few artifacts in any one place.
During which time period did large animals slowly become extinct forcing Native Americans to develop new hunting methods?
What were some of the changes in food sources that occurred during the Archaic time period?
They began relying on nuts, berries, shellfish, and fruits as primary food sources.
Pottery, the grooved ax, and horticulture first appeared during which of the four time periods?
They first appeared in the Archaic Period.
During which time period were tribes first formed?
Which factor BEST explains why Native Americans were able to make permanent settlements?
Native Americans began to cultivate plants for food.
During which time period did mound building FIRST appear?
The first mound builders appeared during the Woodland Period.
Which BEST explains why archaeologists believe that Native Americans living during the Mississippian Period believed in some sort of afterlife?
Burial mounds from the time period contained such items as food, tools, and weapons.
Which time period, which also marked the high point of Native American civilization in the Americas, ended as a result of European exploration and conquest?
Who was the first European to set foot in modern day Georgia?
Hernando de Soto
What was the PRIMARY goal of Hernando de Soto as he explored the American southeast?
He wanted to find gold.
To what fate did Hernando de Soto come while exploring the Americas?
He died somewhere along the Mississippi River.
Which European nation started missions, for the purpose of spreading Christianity, along Georgia's coast on the Barrier Islands?
What was the name of Spain's first permanent colony in the New World?
Which nations played a major role in exploring and colonizing what would become the southeastern United States?
Spain, France, and England
Spain was the first to control which state?
Which nation was the first to control the area around the mouth of the Mississippi?
region located just north of the Fall Line, home to Atlanta and many other cities, most populous region of Georgia
Georgia's largest freshwater swamp, the Native American name means, "land of the trembling Earth."
Name of the mountain range that begins in North Georgia and runs northward toward Canada.
Where the headwaters of the Savannah River are located.
Describe a benefit the Appalachian Mountains bring to Georgia.
The mountains, home to the headwaters of many of the state's rivers, receive large amounts of rain which is carried by rivers throughout the state.
serves as the western border of the state, between Georgia and Alabama
In what month do most tornadoes occur in Georgia?
Georgia's northeastern-most region, home to Brass Town Bald, Georgia's highest mountain peak.
located in the extreme northwest corner of the state, it is home to the state's only coal fields.
What makes the rivers of the Coastal Plain easily navigable?
The region is mostly flat.
The largest of Georgia's five geographic regions. It is this region that borders the Atlantic Ocean.
one of Georgia's city that is located on the Fall Line
What factors made Georgia's summers more difficult for early Europeans?
the heat and humidity
These islands protect Georgia's coastline from erosion, strong winds, and hurricanes.
How would one describe Georgia's overall climate?
mild, or temperate climate
Why did so many of Georgia's earliest settlers build settlements near the Fall Line?
The waterfalls of the Fall Line were difficult to travel over.
What major aspect of Georgia's climate influences business and industry to move into the state?
Georgia has a consistently mild climate.
The Fall Line
This is the dividing line, marked by a change in the soil that creates waterfalls in the rivers, between the Coastal Plain and the Piedmont regions.
The mouth of the Savannah River is located at this ocean.
In which region of the country is Georgia located?
For what is the Valley and Ridge region most known?
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