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the long term prevailing weather conditions at a particular place based upon past records


the state of the atmosphere at a given place at a particular moment

El Niño

the name given to the short term time when the Pacific Ocean is are warmer than usual because strong winds push warm water eastword

La Nina

the name given to the short period of time when the Pacific ocean is colder than usual


the distance from the equator measured in degrees north or south of the equator


rays that hit the earth at an angle and there for have to cover more earth and don't radiate as much heat as vertical rays


the movement of air within the atmosphere

prevailing Winds

winds that blow predominantly in one direction through out the year

Rain shadow

the side of the mountain that gets no rain because by the time the air reaches it has already cooled and there for is dry

Trade Winds

belts of prevailing winds that blow most of the time both hemispheres between 30 degrees north and south latitudes and the equator


belts of prevailing winds that blow most of the time both hemispheres between 30 degrees north and south latitudes and 60 degrees north and south latitudes

Polar Easterlies

belts of prevailing winds that blow most of the time both hemispheres between 60 degrees north and south latitudes and the poles

Solar maximum

when the sun emits an increased amount of ultraviolet radiation

Greenhouse effect

Sunlight Rays enter atmosphere and heat the earth. When the gasses rise some escape into space but most are absorbed by the troposphere

Greenhouse gases

the gasses that absorb heat but also radiate it back to earth which heats up earth

keeling graph

shows that the average yearly concentration of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere has increased yearly

global warming

The average temperature of the earth's surface increasing throughout the 21st century

Kyoto protocol

an agreement that says that the country must decrease the amount of emissions they released in 1990 by 5 percent by 2012

Mountain Top Removal

Mt tops being blown off with explosives in order to mine for coal

Five Tons of Coal;

the amount the average American home burns in a year

1 pound of coal

1 kilowatt hour

Ground Level Ozone

O3 bad ozone

Conservation power plant

doing things to conserve energy so that another power plant does not have to be built.

Solar hot water

water heated from solar panels

Energy conservation

to save energy

Off the grid

a home that is independent (not connected to power plant) (needs Batteries)

Net zero energy

building produces as much energy as it consumes but is still connected to power plant


chopping down trees and destroying forrests

clean energy

energy that does not release greenhouse gasses


burning organic material to create energy


a gas pollutant that is created in landfills from the waste


carbon dioxide


Chlorofluorocarbons human made chemicals that break apart the ozone


zero emission vehicle


partial zero emission vehicle

landfill gas collection

where landfills collect methane gas and then burn it to create energy


a man made lake created by a dam

Water pollution

a substance harmful to the organisms who live or use the water

air pollution

a substance harmful to the organisms that breathe the air or that break down the good ozone layer


the physical geography of a certain place on earth

Carbon Emissions

made from burning of fossil fuels, a major cause of global warming


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

diatomic oxygen

the name for the type of oxygen we breathe


the second layer of the atmosphere; ozone layer occurs here


the layer closest to Earth, where almost all weather occurs; the thinnest layer


The middle layer of Earth's atmosphere; the layer in which most meteoroids burn up; the atmospheric layer between the stratosphere and the thermosphere


the atmospheric layer between the mesosphere and the exosphere; the 4th layer of the atmosphere; space shuttle orbit here


5th (last) layer of the atmosphere that is between the thermosphere and SPACE...


man-made chemical substance that depletes the ozone layer


the mass of air surrounding the Earth


small particles in atmosphere

UV Radiation

damaging rays from the sun


layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere that absorbs AM radio waves during the day and reflects them back at night

convection current

a current caused by the rising of heated fluid and sinking of cooled fluid

lapse rate

rate at which the troposphere cools as you move up in elevation

air pollution

pollution of the atmosphere


anything that harms an organism

primary pollutant

A pollutant that is put directly into the atmosphere by human or natural activity

secondary pollutant

pollutant formed by the chemical reactions of other primary or secondary pollutants


gases released into the air, especially by cars and factories


air pollution by a mixture of smoke and fog

carbon monoxide

an odorless very poisonous gas that is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon (formed by heat sources such as furnaces, cars, etc.)

nitrogen oxides

formed with high temperature, can make the body vulnerable to respiratory conditions, lung disease, and cancer. Contributes to brown haze and acid rain

sulfur dioxide

air pollutant formed when fuel containing sulfur is burned; a colorless, irritating gas that contributes to formation of acid rain


organic compounds that exist as gases in the air

particulate matter

tiny particles of liquid or solid matter that pollute the air

Clean Air Act of 1970

The law that charged the Department of Transportation with the responsibility to reduce automobile emissions; made more PZEVs and ZEVs


partially zero emissions vehicle


zero emissions vehicle


a machine that moves gases through a spray of water that dissolves many pollutants

temperature inversion

atmospheric condition in which warm air traps cooler air near the earth's surface creating bad air quality and bad air pollution

sick-building syndrome

headaches, allergies, chronic fatigue and other symptoms caused by poorly vented indoor air contaminated by pathogens or toxins


name given to a combination of fibers containing silica-were used building-resistance to heat and strong. Fibers can cut and scar the lungs


from furniture, carpeting, colorless gas that has a strong odor, very common industrial and commercial chemical...used to make building materials and household products

radon gas

colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas caused by the decaying of uranium


the intensity of sound

acid precipitation

rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water

pH scale

a range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)

sulfuric acid

(H2SO4) a highly corrosive acid made from sulfur dioxide

nitric acid

HNO3, making explosives, fertlizers and take off varnish, TNT, contributes to acid rain

acid shock

is the sudden influxof acidic water that causes a rapid change in the water's pH

power of hydrogen

what does pH stand for?

amount of mold

bioassay lab dependent variable

amount of pollutant

bioassay lab independent variable

sea turtle

species that can be negatively impacted by light pollution (not birds or bats)


a substance with a pH <7 is ________


a substance with a pH >7 is ________

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