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87 terms

Science Air Pollution Vocab

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Climate
the long term prevailing weather conditions at a particular place based upon past records
Weather
the state of the atmosphere at a given place at a particular moment
El Niño
the name given to the short term time when the Pacific Ocean is are warmer than usual because strong winds push warm water eastword
La Nina
the name given to the short period of time when the Pacific ocean is colder than usual
Latitude
the distance from the equator measured in degrees north or south of the equator
Oblique
rays that hit the earth at an angle and there for have to cover more earth and don't radiate as much heat as vertical rays
Wind
the movement of air within the atmosphere
prevailing Winds
winds that blow predominantly in one direction through out the year
Rain shadow
the side of the mountain that gets no rain because by the time the air reaches it has already cooled and there for is dry
Trade Winds
belts of prevailing winds that blow most of the time both hemispheres between 30 degrees north and south latitudes and the equator
Westerlies
belts of prevailing winds that blow most of the time both hemispheres between 30 degrees north and south latitudes and 60 degrees north and south latitudes
Polar Easterlies
belts of prevailing winds that blow most of the time both hemispheres between 60 degrees north and south latitudes and the poles
Solar maximum
when the sun emits an increased amount of ultraviolet radiation
Greenhouse effect
Sunlight Rays enter atmosphere and heat the earth. When the gasses rise some escape into space but most are absorbed by the troposphere
Greenhouse gases
the gasses that absorb heat but also radiate it back to earth which heats up earth
keeling graph
shows that the average yearly concentration of Carbon Dioxide in the atmosphere has increased yearly
global warming
The average temperature of the earth's surface increasing throughout the 21st century
Kyoto protocol
an agreement that says that the country must decrease the amount of emissions they released in 1990 by 5 percent by 2012
Mountain Top Removal
Mt tops being blown off with explosives in order to mine for coal
Five Tons of Coal;
the amount the average American home burns in a year
1 pound of coal
1 kilowatt hour
Ground Level Ozone
O3 bad ozone
Conservation power plant
doing things to conserve energy so that another power plant does not have to be built.
Solar hot water
water heated from solar panels
Energy conservation
to save energy
Off the grid
a home that is independent (not connected to power plant) (needs Batteries)
Net zero energy
building produces as much energy as it consumes but is still connected to power plant
Deforestation
chopping down trees and destroying forrests
clean energy
energy that does not release greenhouse gasses
incineration
burning organic material to create energy
methane
a gas pollutant that is created in landfills from the waste
CO2
carbon dioxide
CFCs
Chlorofluorocarbons human made chemicals that break apart the ozone
ZEV
zero emission vehicle
PZEV
partial zero emission vehicle
landfill gas collection
where landfills collect methane gas and then burn it to create energy
reservoir
a man made lake created by a dam
Water pollution
a substance harmful to the organisms who live or use the water
air pollution
a substance harmful to the organisms that breathe the air or that break down the good ozone layer
Topography
the physical geography of a certain place on earth
Carbon Emissions
made from burning of fossil fuels, a major cause of global warming
IPCC
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
diatomic oxygen
the name for the type of oxygen we breathe
stratosphere
the second layer of the atmosphere; ozone layer occurs here
troposphere
the layer closest to Earth, where almost all weather occurs; the thinnest layer
mesosphere
The middle layer of Earth's atmosphere; the layer in which most meteoroids burn up; the atmospheric layer between the stratosphere and the thermosphere
thermosphere
the atmospheric layer between the mesosphere and the exosphere; the 4th layer of the atmosphere; space shuttle orbit here
exosphere
5th (last) layer of the atmosphere that is between the thermosphere and SPACE...
chlorofluorocarbons
man-made chemical substance that depletes the ozone layer
atmosphere
the mass of air surrounding the Earth
aerosols
small particles in atmosphere
UV Radiation
damaging rays from the sun
ionosphere
layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere that absorbs AM radio waves during the day and reflects them back at night
convection current
a current caused by the rising of heated fluid and sinking of cooled fluid
lapse rate
rate at which the troposphere cools as you move up in elevation
air pollution
pollution of the atmosphere
pollution
anything that harms an organism
primary pollutant
A pollutant that is put directly into the atmosphere by human or natural activity
secondary pollutant
pollutant formed by the chemical reactions of other primary or secondary pollutants
emissions
gases released into the air, especially by cars and factories
smog
air pollution by a mixture of smoke and fog
carbon monoxide
an odorless very poisonous gas that is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon (formed by heat sources such as furnaces, cars, etc.)
nitrogen oxides
formed with high temperature, can make the body vulnerable to respiratory conditions, lung disease, and cancer. Contributes to brown haze and acid rain
sulfur dioxide
air pollutant formed when fuel containing sulfur is burned; a colorless, irritating gas that contributes to formation of acid rain
VOCs
organic compounds that exist as gases in the air
particulate matter
tiny particles of liquid or solid matter that pollute the air
Clean Air Act of 1970
The law that charged the Department of Transportation with the responsibility to reduce automobile emissions; made more PZEVs and ZEVs
PZEV
partially zero emissions vehicle
ZEV
zero emissions vehicle
scrubbers
a machine that moves gases through a spray of water that dissolves many pollutants
temperature inversion
atmospheric condition in which warm air traps cooler air near the earth's surface creating bad air quality and bad air pollution
sick-building syndrome
headaches, allergies, chronic fatigue and other symptoms caused by poorly vented indoor air contaminated by pathogens or toxins
asbestos
name given to a combination of fibers containing silica-were used building-resistance to heat and strong. Fibers can cut and scar the lungs
formaldehyde
from furniture, carpeting, colorless gas that has a strong odor, very common industrial and commercial chemical...used to make building materials and household products
radon gas
colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas caused by the decaying of uranium
decibel
the intensity of sound
acid precipitation
rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
pH scale
a range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)
sulfuric acid
(H2SO4) a highly corrosive acid made from sulfur dioxide
nitric acid
HNO3, making explosives, fertlizers and take off varnish, TNT, contributes to acid rain
acid shock
is the sudden influxof acidic water that causes a rapid change in the water's pH
power of hydrogen
what does pH stand for?
amount of mold
bioassay lab dependent variable
amount of pollutant
bioassay lab independent variable
sea turtle
species that can be negatively impacted by light pollution (not birds or bats)
acidic
a substance with a pH <7 is ________
basic
a substance with a pH >7 is ________