83 terms

US History Final Exam IDs

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Anasazi
Important culture of what is now the southwest (around 100-1000 C.E.). Centered on the Colorado River Plateau, the Anasazi culture built multistory residences. H.S. = Best known ancient American farming culture, created "Peublos"
Cherokee
Native American tribe originally in the South Eastern U.S., forcibly relocated in the 1838 "Trail of Tears" to western "indian territory" H.S. = An Native American group that tried to assimilate with American culture, and acted honorably but was still treated very poorly by whites
Iroquois
A term which designates a confederacy of 5 Native American tribes originally inhabiting the northern part of New York state, consisting of the SENECA, CAYUGA, ONEIDA, ONONDAGA and MOHAWK. H.S. = Played a large role in the Revolutionary war and war of 1812,
Encomienda
A Spanish system created by Columbus and his successors in the early 1500s used in dealing with natives in the New World. It forced Natives to work for the Spanish lords in exchange for "protection." H.S. = Encomienda turned into a brutal form of slavery, and showed how badly natives were treated by colonists
Roanoke
The first English community in America, founded in 1584. Established to plunder the new world and ship goods back to England. The colonist's excessive greed led it to failure. H.S. = First of many english colonies, and future colonies were were base on lessons learned at Roanoke
Jamestown
Supposed to be the first permanent English settlement, founded in 1607. It turned out to be a dismal failure because it wasn't profitable and lacked funding. H.S. = The people of Jamestown's dealings with Native Americans led Virginia to exclude them in the future.
John Smith
Temporary leader of Jamestown, his strictness help it survive for a bit. Lied about Pocahontas H.S. = not really that significant, but one of the men that conducted England's first contact with Native Americans
Stono Rebellion
In 1739, the most violent slave rebellion of the colonial period. Black slaves temporarily overthrew Stono, South Carolina, but were pushed back and defeated by white planters. H.S. = Prime example of the tensions between people cause by slavery in the Colonial preiod
The Mayflower Compact
The agreement in 1620 between the hired men and puritan leaders of the "Pilgrim" group, creating a civil body where all males help make decisions. H.S. = First document of self-government in North America, some believe the birth of U.S.
Separatists
Group of "pilgrims" who saw the English church as corrupt, and one part moved to Holland. Feared their children were becoming "too dutch" and sailed to North America.
Columbian Exchange
Transfer of plant and animal species and diseases between Europe and America. Example: Horses from Spain, coffee from Africa to South America, wheat from Europe, tomatoes from America, smallpox from Europe
First Great Awakening
Early 1700s: Pastors convert new wave of colonists to Protestantism with emotional sermons designed to guilt-trip them into religion
Second Great Awakening
After Puritans gradually lose power in America in mid-1700s, young (in 20s) men travel to plantations and convert slaves to Christianity. Now that slaves and slaveowners have the same religion, racism is used to justify why slaves are "different"
Middle Passage
Europeans bribe Africans to let them take slaves, which are shipped to America in the Middle Passage to farm crops which are shipped back to Europe (triangular trade)
Pequot War
Mass. Bay Colony allies with Narragansett and Mohegan Indians and starts fight with their enemies (Pequot tribe). Hundreds of Pequots are killed or enslaved, destroying the Pequot Tribe completely
John Winthrop
First governor of Mass. Bay Colony. Hopes it will be a city on the hill (model of successful Puritanism).
Anne Hutchinson
Lives in Mass Bay. Interprets Bible differently from Winthrop, goes on trial in 1638 and flees
Quakers
Christian denomination that supports religious tolerance. William Penn (a Quaker) founds Pennsylvania as a center for toleration and pacifism
King Philip's War
Plymouth Colony coexists along with Indians. Pokanoket Indians live between Plymouth and Rhode Island and are encroached on by colonists. Pokanoket chief (Metacom or "King Philip") eventually starts deadly war, colonists bond together which contributes to a separate identity from England
Proprietary Colony
Colony run by a for-profit group. Examples: Jamestown (profitable because of tobacco), Delaware, Maryland
Indentured Servants
Go to New World for free in exchange for labor. Highest concentration is in Jamestown, main labor source before slaves arrived
Common Sense
Published 1776, read by most colonists, argues that America is a new country that deserves an independent republican government. Makes unsure colonists reconsider whether colonial government is a good thing
Articles of Confederation
First independent American government with real authority. Designed as extremely limited because of fear of centralized governments like Britain
Committees of Correspondence
Independent shadow governments in colonies. They have more power than colonial government in early 1770s and are a proof of concept of independent government
Actual Representation
American philosophy that each colony should be directly represented in Parliament. British argue that existing Parliament already looks out for colonies so there is no need for it (Virtual Representation)
Thomas Jefferson
wrote original Decl of Independence, leader of Democratic-Republican Party (creating first two-party system with Federalists)
Battle of Saratoga
New York, American victory, turning point of American Revolution in the North
Siege of Yorktown
Virginia, American victory, eventually leads to British surrender
James Madison
most important author of Constitution, originally proposed Virginia Plan (string central government and representation proportional to population), supports central government as President (creates 2nd Bank of the US)
Franklin's Plan of Union
Would have created a council that decided issues involving Indians or internal affairs
Loyalists
Supported British in American Revolution. 15-20% of white population and strongest in New York
Battles of Lexington and Concord
First violent conflict between American separatist groups and British. Didn't lead to national war by itself but was a sign of war that came a year later
Alexander Hamilton
Sec of Treasury under Washington. Takes responsibility for all state debt, which gives people interest in having federal government succeed, but pisses off Virginia, who already paid off their debt.
Joseph Brant
Assimilated Iroquois (Mohawk Tribe) who lived in England and convinces Iroquois to side with Loyalists. Leads both Indians and white Loyalists against revolutionaries
Siege of Charleston
Major British victory in American Revolution, 1780. Worst American defeat in the South, hurts American morale
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Organizes land east of Miss. River into territories, requires admission of new states instead of expanding old states (which was British colonial policy)
Great Compromise
Made between South and North and Constitutional Convention. Senate gets 2 reps per state (good for North), House is proportional by population, and slave men count as 3/5ths of free men (both good for South)
Declaration of Independence
Written by Continental Congress in 1776. Aimed at colonists, not Britain, and explains why they should want independence
Article V
of the Constitution. Specifies how amendments are made (2/3 of both houses of Congress agree, then 2/3 of state legislatures agree to ratify it). Forces Fed to allow importation of slaves until 1808 when Congress may choose to ban it (a compromise with South)
Antifederalists
First want sovereignty to stay with states (as with Articles of Confederation), then ask for Bill of Rights as compromise (guarantees certain rights to people and states)
Bill Of Rights
Summary of inalienable rights, written in Virginia. The first ten Amendments to the federal Constitution of 1789 (ratified in 1791). Influenced growth of government power.
Federalist Party
Political party first appearing in 1787. A party consisting of supporters of the Constitution.
Republican Party
Emerged in the 1850s after controversy over the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Consists of former Whigs, some Northern Democrats, and Know-Nothings. It was a changing body of ideas, values, and assumptions that influenced the political behavior during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Market Revolution
The outcome of 3 interrelated developments: transportation, commercialization, and industrialization between 1790 and 1840. It brought pride in the potential of the new and expanding nation.
New York Draft Riots
Riot lasting three days from July 13-16, 1863 in NYC. Working class men protested against the draft and racial prejudice. 5 units of the U.S. Army sent from Battle of Gettysburg area to stop the riot, resulting in 105 deaths.
Thirteenth Amendment
(1865) Official document of the abolition of slavery noted in the Constitution. Completed the abolition of slavery started by the Emancipation Proclamation (1863) by Lincoln.
Ulysses S. Grant
Military General of the Union Army (1863 to 1865) and the 18th President of the U.S. Born on April 27, 1822 in Point Pleasant, Ohio. Took Vicksburg on July 4, 1863 and was appointed General of all Union Forces in 1864.
Lowell, MA
(1817) Town at the junction of Concord and Mehmack Rivers named after Francis Cabot Lowell. Opening of the world's first integrated cotton mill. It survived the intense British competition following the war of 1812.
Peninsular Campaign
A plan to capture Richmond in March 1862. McClellan committed 120,000 troops to the Peninsular Campaign. Robert Lee counterattacked in the "Seven Days" battles, catching McClellan offguard. Neither side strong enough to win but each too strong to be defeated.
Mexican-American War
Armed conflict between Mexico and the U.S. in the 1845 wake of the Texas Annexation lasting from April 25, 1846 to Feb. 2, 1848. Ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) where Mexico gave up claim to Texas, north of Rio Grande, Alta Cali., and New Mexico.
Robert E. Lee
Commanding General of the Confederate Army from 1863 to 1865. Invited to be in charge of the Union Army in 1861 by Lincoln but declined to follow his homestate which seceded from the Union. Surrendered to Grant at Appomattox on April 9, 1865.
Emancipation Proclamation
Executive Order by Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. Proclaimed the freedom of 3.1 million slaves. Led to the enactment of the Thirteenth Amendment. Gave support for the first time to the recruitment of black soldiers.
Vicksburg
Siege on July 4, 1863 in Mississippi. Taken by General Grant. Important because it yielded command of the Mississippi River to Union forces.
Sherman's Campaign 1864/March to the Sea
A new strategy in 1864. Marched 285 miles to Savannah, destroying everything in path, turning away over 18,000 slaves who flocked to them. Led to Special Order 15 where he set aside 400,000 acres of Confederate Land to slaves. Captured Atlanta on Sept. 2, 1864.
Seneca Falls Convention
Women's Rights Convention on July 19-20, 1848 in Seneca Falls, NY. They wrote the Declaration of Sentiments and was followed by the Second National Women's Rights convention in Worcester, MA in 1851.
Manifest Destiny
(1845) Doctrine operated as a self-serving justification for territorial aggrandizement. Associated with the Democratic party and was distinguished by its explicitly racial component. Expansion of white Americans across nation.
Popular Sovereignty
Solution to slavery crisis first seen in the elections of 1848. Method in which territorial residents would decide slavery's fate.
John Brown's Raid
Raid/uprising on October 16, 1859 in Virginia. Led 22 white and African American men against the arsenal, ended with 8 dead in less than a day. Brown was captured, trialed, and hung on Dec. 2, 1859. Aroused fear of uprising in South.
Compromise of 1850
Series of bills deliberating free states and slave states in September 1850. 5 separate bills embodying 3 separate compromises following after the Mexican-American War and written by Henry Clay.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1851 that highly influenced England's view on the American Deep South and slavery. A novel promoting abolition. 300,000 copies sold in the first year, 2 million+ sold in 10 years.
Freedmen's Bureau
March 1865 - Agency set up by Congress to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. Provided social, educational, and economic services, advice, and protection to former slaves. Lasted 7 years.
Ku Klux Klan
Founded in the 1860s in the south. Violently threatened newly freed slaves. Led to the Ku Klux Klan Act of April 1871. Acted as a guerrilla military force in service of the Democratic Party.
Compromise of 1877
Congressional settling of the 1876 presidential election between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
Radical Republicans
(Beginning of Civil War) Political party consisting of a shifting group of congressmen that favored abolitionism and the harsh punishment of Southern states after the Civil War. Wade-Davis Bill required 50% of a seceding states white male citizens to take a loyalty oath.
Theodore Roosevelt
26th President of the U.S. Served 8 years from 1901 to 1909. Known for trust-busting, Big Stick Diplomacy, Hepburn Act, Nobel Peace Prize
Populist Movement
Movement of farmers in the late 1800s to become politically involved to protect their interest in America. The movement wanted to expand the money supply and regulate Big Business. Biggest challenge to the two-party system since the Civil War. Formed on the basis of the Southern Farmer's Alliance.
The Homestead Act
Passed in May of 1862 by Congress, the law offered 160 acres of land free for anyone who agreed to live on and improve the land for 5 years. Increased role of fed. gov. in national life.
Dawes Severalty Act
Law passed in 1887 by Congress. Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, ineffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes - lost up to 60% of their reservation land within the next 40 years.
Muckraking
(1890s) The practice of journalists to expose the inappropriate actions of public officials, government organizations, or corporations. Demonstrated the potential for mobilizing public opinion.
Grange
Fraternal self-help organization in 1867 in the Midwest. Led by Oliver H. Kelley. White farmers formed the Patrons of Husbandry - help each other improve.
Sand Creek Massacre
Attack of Black Kettle's Cheyenne band by Colorado troops led by John M. Chivington. Took place on November 29, 1864 in Sand Creek, Colorado. Black Kettle surrendered but a disorderly band of 700 men slaughtered 105 cheyenne women and children, and 28 men.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies during the Gilded Age and Progressive Era.
The Niagara Movement
African American group formed in 1905 to fight for racial justice. Failed to generate change. In 1909, many members attended a National Negro Conference. Led to the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
The Knights of Labor
Labor Union formed in 1869 in Philadelphia. Sought to bring together wage earners. Became the largest labor organization in the 19th century. They created a special department consisting of 65,000 women members.
The American Federation of Labor (AFL)
(1886) An organization of skilled craft unions under the reformist Samuel Gompers. Bargain w/ employers for better working conditions, higher wages, and shorter hours. Rapidly pushed ahead of Knights of Labor.
Food and Drug Act
(1906) Law that provided federal inspections of meat products and forbade manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products. Led to creation of the Food and Drug Administration in 1906.
"Conspicuous Consumption"
Theory at the beginning of the Gilded Age that the rich had visible displays of wealth and consumption. Became leading patrons of arts - funds for new symphonies, operas, etc. and creation of art institutes.
CPI
Committee on Public Information formed during WWI to sell the war. Led by George Creel.
Great Migration
Mass movement of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North during World War I and the 1920s. Moved because of economic opportunity. Contributed to the civil rights cause.
League of Nations
An international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations.
Versailles Treaty
Ended WWI. Blamed Germany for the war, forced them to pay reparations to Britain/France
Vertical Integration
One business buying other companies in their supply chain (whose products they need), making the whole industry more efficient. Example: Carnegie Steel
Woodrow Wilson
Pres from 1913-1921. Got US into WWI to "make the world safe for democracy". Encouraged trade with Latin American countries instead of imperialism. Considered progressive