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106 terms

World History Middle East Test

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Anwar Sadat
president of Egypt during camp david accords
Anwar Sadat
planned Yom Kippur War
Anwar Sadat
wanted to make peace with Israel so signed Camp David Accords in 1979
Anwar Sadat
assassinated by Muslim extremists
Golda Meir
Israeli prime minister during the Yom Kippur war an launched a counterattack which allowed Israel to regain most of the lost territory
Golda Meir
Israeli Prime minister during Six Day War
Yasir Arafat
leader of the PLO
Yasir Arafat
organized civil disobedience towards Israel
Yasir Arafat
signed Oslo Peace Accords with Israel in 1993
1979
year the Camp David accords were signed
1993
year the Oslo Peace Accords were signed
Palestinian Liberation Organization
PLO
PLO
organization that want a Palestinian homeland/state
PLO
launched numerous attacks against Israel
PLO
led by Yasir Arafat
Camp David Accords
Jimmy Carter invited Egypt and Israel to presidential retreat to have peace talks
Camp David Accords
signed by Sadat and Begin (Egypt and Israel) at Camp David in the USA
Camp David Accords
Israel agreed to return the Sinai Peninsula in this agreement
Camp David Accords
Egypt recognized Israel as a legitimate nation in this agreement
Camp David Accords
ended 30 years of hostility
intifada
Palestinian campaign of civil disobedience; included boycotts, demonstrations, and armed attacks
Oslo Peace Accords
Declaration of Principles
Oslo Peace Accords
signed by Rabin (Israel) and Arafat (PLO) in capital of Norway (Oslo)
Oslo Peace Accords
Israel gave Palestinians self-rule in Gaza Strip and West Bank
Oslo Peace Accords
Israelis disliked giving up land so a Jewish extremist killed Rabin
1917
year the Balfour Declaration was created
Balfour Declaration
a letter to Zionists about Britain's idea to give a homeland to the Jewish people while protecting rights of non jewish communities
Zionists
a group of people you favored a Jewish Homeland in Palestine so that they could be back in the land of their ancestors
1948
independent Israel is created in this year
1956
Arab israeli war year that Israel won
1967
Six Day War year which Israel also won
1973
Yom kippur war year which Israel took back and won
Suez Canal
manmade canal going through Egypt;
Suez Canal
connects Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea
Suez Canal
faster way to transport goods
Suez Canal
caused Suez Crisis because Egypt wanted control of it, but Britain wouldn't give in
Hosni Mubarak
president of Egypt after Anwar Sadat was assassinated
Hosni Mubarak
harsh dictator of Egypt stepped down in February 2011 after 30 years
Y. Rabin
leader of Israel who signed Oslo Peace Accords with PLO
Y. Rabin
assassinated by Jewish extremist who disliked his want for peace
Benjamin Netanyahu
prime minister of Israel after Rabin
Benjamin Netanyahu
disliked Oslo Accords, but made efforts to keep agreement
Ehud Barak
prime minister of Israel after Netanyahu
Ehud Barak
supported Oslo Accords more than Netanyahu did
Ehud Barak
went to Camp David w/ Arafat in 2000, but peace plans stalled
Ariel Sharon
Israeli political leader who went to Temple Mount in Jerusalem (Jewish holy place), which started 2nd intifada against Israelis
Ariel Sharon
prime minister of Israel after Barak
Mahmoud Abbas
high-ranking PLO official and first Palestinian prime minister and also main negotiator for Palestinian side
Mahmoud Abbas
high-ranking PLO official->first Palestinian prime minister->main negotiator for Palestinian side
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
Transcaucasian Republics
Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Central Asian Republics
white gold
cotton grown in Central Asia; cash crop; only crop they grew
oil
cause of Hussein's invasion of Kuwait; found mostly in Kuwait
Afghanistan
Soviet's fought for control here because they wanted access to the Indian Ocean and wanted to spread communism
Soviets
never succeeded in controlling Afghanistan; in country for 10 years (1979-1989)
mujahideen
Islamic "holy warriors" against Soviet control in Afghanistan
Taliban
political party in Afghanistan that ruled for 5 years until US drove them from power
Taliban
conservative-no rights for women, bad treatment
Osama bin Laden
leader of the Al-Qaeda, responsible for numerous terrorist attacks on nations (most famous=9/11)
Osama bin Laden
began as soldier for mujahideen
Osama bin Laden
killed by US Navy SEALs in May 2011
Al-Qaeda
terrorist group responsible for many attacks on the US and other nations
Al-Qaeda
supported by the Taliban
Hamid Karzai
ruler the Afghanis chose after the defeat of Taliban
9/11
planned by Osama bin Laden and carried out by Al-Qaeda
9/11
4 planes-2 smashed into the Twin Towers, 1 smashed into the Pentagon, 1 was supposed to hit the White House, but passengers on the plane received this information and overtook the pilot, crashed into a field and all died for their country
9/11
most successful terrorist attack on the US
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NATO
NATO
for collective security; between US, England, France, Canada, and other Western European countries
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
SEATO
SEATO
Includes USA, UK, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand; opposed communism; purpose=to stop spread of communism in Southeast Asia
United Nations
worked towards world peace; had peacekeeping forces-soldiers from different nations; 40,000 soldiers in 13 peacekeeping forces around the world
Weapons of Mass Destruction
nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, and biological weapons
proliferation
spread (of weapons to other nations)
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
SALT
SALT
made to keep the number of troops and arms at a minimum in order to keep peace
Saddam Hussein
president of Iraq for 26 years
Saddam Hussein
radical, harsh ruler; killed thousands of people, even his own;
Saddam Hussein
US thought he was making WMD's, we sent inspectors who were then not allowed to come back in a 2nd time, so we sent troops to raid then he ran away in hiding and US found him in a cave in 2009 so we gave him to the replacement Iraqi gov't, who then found him guilty after trial, so they executed him
1991
year of the Persian Gulf War
Persian Gulf War
Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait to take control of the country so he could get the oil and money from it and the US sent counterattack groups and 6 months later, Hussein was pushed out-on his way out, he ordered his troops to set fire to oil mines
Arms trade
bustling and busy trade of weapons
Arms trade
ensures that in most conflicts around the world, each side had more than enough weapons in their possession
Arms trade
US, W. Europe, SU gave conventional arms to developing countries during this event
conventional arms
non-nuclear weapons (tanks, planes, rifles)
conventional arms
supplied by US, Western Europe, and SU during Cold War
conventional arms
sold mostly to developing nations
Non-Proliferation Treaty
NPT
NPT
made to prevent spread of nuclear weapons to other nations
NPT
passed by UN in 1968, enforced from 1970-1995 (25 years) and is renewed forever
Bioweapons
biological weapons
Bioweapons
considered the most deadly weapon
Bioweapons
microorganisms, bacteria, viruses-invade the body, multiply inside it, and destroy it
Bioweapons
can kill huge #s of people if used properly
Bioweapons
effects of weapon aren't limited to 1 place or small target
Tony Blair
prime minister of Great Britain who accused the Iraqis of deception and evasion and said that inspections would never work against them when the US was searching for WMD's in Iraq
Operation Iraqi Freedom
event in 2003 in Iraq
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Bush demanded that Hussein and aides leave Iraq or face military strike and he refused; invasion of Iraq to remove Hussein
Operation Iraqi Freedom
coalition forces won, but people still needed help in rebuilding their nation and stayed to help keep order in Iraq
coalition
troops made up of soldiers from different nations (i.e. Britain and US)
coalition
defeated regime of Hussein in Iraq->won war in Iraq
Israel
created because Jews needed a homeland after the Holocaust
Israel
UN wanted to partition Palestine into 2 separate Palestinian and Jewish states.... the cause of making this country
invasion
what happened to Israel the day after it became a country
Azerbaijan
country whos economy is based off of income from the oil industry
United States and Soviet Union
2 countries that Afghanistan had wars with