Environmental Science Chapter 3 Test
Review for Chapter 3 test, please remember that you should also be able to apply the concepts of the quizlet.
Terms in this set (36)
The first producers of energy-rich compounds that are later used by other organisms, usually a plant
Plants use the sun's (light) energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars and oxygen that are released into the atmosphere
A consumer that eats only plants (other organisms).
A consumer that eats only animals (other organisms).
A consumer that eats both plants and animals.
An organism that breaks down chemicals from wastes and dead organisms, and returns important materials to the soil and water.
conservation of matter
In any chemical reaction, matter changes form; it is neither created nor destroyed.
the continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back
..., water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
the emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
Circulation and reutilization of carbon includes photosynthesis (removal of CO2) and respiration (addition of CO2) , burning of fossil fuels and decomposition of plants and animals,
Process by which certain bacteria convert nitrogen gas to ammonia,can also occur naturally with lightening strikes, the atmosphere is 78% nitrogen gas
animals and nitrogen
Animals get most of the nitrogen they need by consuming plants or other animals
Compounds in food that the body requires for proper growth, maintenance, and functioning
cycling of nutrients from abiotic to biotic sources through biological, geological, and chemical processes. Includes: carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and water cycles
phosphorus in organisms
essential for formation of DNA and RNA
negative consequence of industrial revolution
environmental harm from burning of fossil fuels
Occurs when an output of matter, energy, or information is fed back into the system as an input and leads to changes in that system.
Earth's outermost layer.
the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
Extends from the bottom of the mantle to the Earth's core, extremely dense, made mostly of iron and nickel. Estimated between 5432-12982 F, temperature and pressure increase greatly with increasing depth.
divergent plate boundary
Area where tectonic plates push apart from one another as magma rises upward to the surface, creating new lithosphere as it cools and spreads. A prime example is the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Compare convergent plate boundary and transform plate boundary.
convergent plate boundary
A region where plates are pushing together and where a mountain range, island arc, and/or trench will eventually form; often a site of much seismic and volcanic activity.
transform plate boundary
Lithospheric plates move side-by-side, horizontally past each other. No volcanic activity, but generates huge earthquakes.
function of carbon dioxide in atmosphere
keep earth warm through greenhouse effect
% of hydrosphere that is fresh water
The change from a gas to a liquid
negative feedback loop
A process in which the output of one type acts as an input that moves the system in the opposite direction (stabilizes)
area of earths surface to its center three main parts crust mantle core
A supercontinent that assembled at the end of the Paleozoic Era. The most recent super continent
The lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere., where planes fly
The theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere, called plates, move and change shape. There are 15 major plates on earth and they are able to move 2-15 cm per year.
Cyclic movement of phosphorus in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment the only cycle of the biogeochemical cycles that does not enter the atmosphere
A process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria., A process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria.
a location within a body of water that does not have enough dissolved oxygen to sustain life. often associated with excess nitrogen runoff particularly from farming areas
places of carbon accumulation such as in large forests (organic compounds) or ocean sediments (calcium carbonate); carbon is thus removed from the carbon cycle for moderately long to very long periods of time.