56 terms

Chapter 20 - Human Anatomy and Physiology - The Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Organs and Tissues - key terms

This was taken from Pearson's Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8th Edition to help me study for the tests in the class, it is all of the key bold terms. We have an extremely hard teacher who believes that we should know our science inside and out to be good in the medical world so he tests very hard. I hope this helps everyone to study a little bit better.
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Lymphatic System
This consists of 3 parts: (1) lymphatic vessls (2) lymph (3) lymph nodes.
Lymph Nodes
These form parts of the lymphatic organs and tissues. (example: Spleen, Thymus, Tonsils)
Lymph
This is the name for fluid once it has entered the lymphatics. ("Clear Water")
Lymphatics
This is the system of drainage vessels that collect interstitial fluid and returns it to the bloodstream. (AKA- Lymphatic Vessels)
Lymphatic Capillaries
These are the vessels where lymph first enters the lymphatics. These are made up of loose endothelial cells that form flaplike minivalves held outward by collagen filaments which give them extreme permeability.
Lacteals
These are highly specialized lymphatic capillaries found in the villi in the intestinal mucosa. Named for its white appearance.
Chyle
This is the milky white lymph drained from intestine through lacteals.
Lymphatic Trunks
These are formed by the largest lymphatic collecting vessels. ("Lumbar, Bronchomediastinal, Subclavian,
Lymphatic Collecting Vessels
These receive lymph from lymphatic capillaries, contain more valves than veins, superficial and deep, pass through lymph nodes where it is monitored and cleared of pathogens and cancer cells
Right Lymphatic Duct
receives lymph from the right upper part of the body
Thoracic Duct
the major duct of the lymphatic system
Cisterna Chyli
an enlarged pouch on the thoracic duct that serves as a storage area for lymph moving toward its point of entry into the venous system
Lymphangitis
inflammation of a lymph vessel
Lymphedema
swelling (usually in the legs) caused by lymph accumulating in the tissues
Lymphocytes
The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system
T Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes that develop in the thymus and are responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Their cell-surface antigen receptor is called the T-cell receptor.
B Lymphocytes
form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections.
Plasma Cells
cells that develop from B cells and produce antibodies.
Macrophages
Found within the lymph nodes, they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter in the lymphatic stream.
Dendritic Cells
specialized white blood cells that patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections
Reticular Cells
produce reticular fiber stroma (network for other cells)
Stroma
the supporting tissue of an organ (as opposed to parenchyma)
Lymphoid Tissue
An important component of the immune system, mainly because 1) houses and provides a proliferation site for lymphocytes and 2) furnishes an ideal surveillence vantage point for lymphocytes and macrophages.
Reticular Connective Tissue
Composed of reticular fibers within a gel-like ground substance. Cellular components are fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and other blood cells. Located in LYMPH NODES, SPLEEN, BONE MARROW.
Diffuse Lymphatic Tissue
scattered reticular tissue elements and associated lymphocytes; found in about every organ but especially in mucous membrane lining the respiratory and digestive tracts
Lymphoid Follicles
solid, spherical bodies consisting of tightly packed reticular elements and cells- often form parts of larger lymphoid organs (found isolated in distal small intestine and appendix)
Capsule
a sticky, gelatinous substance around the cell wall; allows cells to stick together or to the host cell
Trabeculae
connective tissue strands that extend in to divide the node into compartments
Cortex
the tissue forming the outer layer of an organ or structure in plant or animal
Medulla
the inner part of an organ or structure in plant or animal
Medullary Cords
extend from the cortex and contain B cells, T cells, and plasma cells
Lymph Sinuses
Spaces between these groups of lymphatic tissues. These spaces contain a network of fibers and the macrophage cells.
Afferent Lymphatic Vessels
Vessels that bring lymph draining from connective tissue into a lymph node en route to the blood.
Subcapsular Sinus
region within lymph node immediately deep to capsule, contains relatively sparse lymphocytes, allows lymph to flow freely through it
Hilum
(anatomy) a depression or fissure where vessels or nerves or ducts enter a bodily organ
Efferent Lymphatic Vessels
Vessels leaving the lymph node
Spleen
a large dark-red oval organ on the left side of the body between the stomach and the diaphragm
White Pulp
That region of the spleen within PALS; predominant immune cell is the T cell and where primary T cell responses can occur.
Red Pulp
consists of reticular cells and fibers(cords of Billroth), surrounds the splenic sinuses
Splenic Cords
network of reticular cells which produce reticular fibers; spaces between fibers are occuplied by macrophages and blood cells that have come from the capillaries
Thymus
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity
Hassall's Corpuscles
reticular epithelial cells in medulla organized in concentric circles.
Lymphoid Organs
Lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus gland are examples of what?
Palatine Tonsils
located on the left and right sides of the throat in the area that is visible through the mouth
Lingual Tonsils
Collection of lymphoid follicles on the base, posterior, or pharyngeal portion of the dorsum of the tongue.
Pharyngeal Tonsils
a collection of lymphatic tissue in the throat behind the uvula (on the posterior wall and roof of the nasopharynx)
Tubal Tonsils
These are a pair of lymphoid organs which lie just behind the openings of the pharyngotympanic tubes into the pharynx; they 'are hidden'
Tonsillar Crypts
portion of tonsils that trap and destroy bacteria and particulate matter.
Appendix
a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch
Elephantiasis
a condition in which the limbs become extremely swollen and the skin hardens and thickens, happens when a large amount of filarial worms block lymphatic vessels
Hodgkin's Disease
painless progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphoid tissue; symptoms include anorexia, lassitude, weight loss, fever, itching, night sweats, and anemia
Lymphadenopathy
chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
Lymphangiography
roentgenographic examination of lymph nodes and lymph vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium
Lymphoma
a neoplasm (tumor) of lymph tissue that is usually malignant
Peyer's Patches
Lymphoid follicles situated along the wall of the small intestine that trap antigens from the gastrointestinal tract and provide sites where B and T cells can interact with antigen
MALT
mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue; composted of Peyer's patches, tonsils, appendix and lymphoid nodules in the bronchii; protects passages that open to exterior from the nerver-ending onslaughts of foreing matter entering them