160 terms

Biology: Test 1

N. Strobel CH 1, 37, 4, 5
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Terms in this set (...)

Where are many of the as yet undiscovered species thought likely to be found? Hint: where are energy, nutrients, water, favorable temperatures, etc consistently and abundantly available?
Rainforests
View the levels of organization in life's hierarchy, and provide an example for each level. See figure 1.1, page 2(Note: the word hierarchy comes from a Greek root that meant "sacred order".) (For a test, be able to correctly match examples to levels.)
Biosphere: the earth
Ecosystem: Florida coast
Community: all organisms on the Florida coast
Population : group of brown pelicans
Organism: brown pelican
Organ system: nervous system
Organ: brain
Tissue: nervous tissue
Cell: nerve cell
Organelle: nucleus
Molecule: DNA
Biosphere
The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life: the sum of all the planet's ecosystems.
Ecosystem
All the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact/ a biological community and its physical environment.
Community
An assemblage of all the organism living together and potentially interacting in a particular area.
Population
A group of individuals belonging to one species and living in the same geographic area.
Organism
An individual living thing, such as bacterium, fungus, protist, plant, or animal.
Organ System
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
Organs
A structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions.
Tissues
An integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both.
Cell
A basic unit of living matter separated from its environment by a plasma membrane/ the fundamental structural unit of life.
Organelle
A membrane-enclosed structure with a specialized function within a cell.
Molecule
A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
All living things are made of one or more cells. What are the main differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? What is one key similarity?4
A Prokaryotic cell lacks a membrane-enclosed nucleus and a eukaryotic cell contains an enclosed nucleus. They both contain DNA and a nucleus
Other characteristics shared by living things include 5:
Order: some type of organization
Response to the environment: sense and respond to external and internal environment
Regulation: eg. temperature, blood pressure, hormones
Energy processing: take in and use energy
Reproduction
Growth and development
Evolutionary adaptation: over time
Into what 3 "Domains" have living things been classified?
Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
Kingdom: Monera
Domain: Bacteria, Archaea
Kingdom: Protista
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Plantae
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Fungi
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Animalia
Domain: Eukarya
What is evolution, in the biological sense?
Descent with modification (Darwin's Theory)/ the idea that living species are descendants of ancestral species that are different from present day ones/
Define "natural selection" and tell why/how it is thought to be the mechanism behind evolution.
Preexisting genetic variation because of mutation. Natural forces that influence reproductive success
Provide an example of how hypothesis
driven scientific research could be used to determine whether your car isn't starting because the battery is dead.
Which type of logic is used to come up with ways to test hypotheses?
Deductive reasoning
A good hypothesis is not only testable and falsifiable, it can also be proven to be true beyond all doubt.
false
Which hypothesis was tested by David and Karin Pfennig?
Mimicry of poisonous coral snakes protects nonpoisonous king snakes from predation, but only where both species occur.
Each generation of predators has to learn by trial and error that coral snakes are poisonous and king snakes are nonpoisonous.
false
Which type of snakes made up the control group?
brown painted snakes
The purpose of a controlled experiment is to
enable a valid comparison between the outcomes of two groups that differ in one characteristic but were otherwise treated identically
How did researchers tell whether the artificial snakes had been attacked?
The artificial snakes were examined for the presence of bite marks or claw marks.
When deployed within the natural range of coral snakes, which type of artificial snake was attacked more frequently by predators?
artificial brown snakes
When deployed in areas outside the natural range of coral snakes, which type of artificial snake was attacked more frequently by predators?
artificial king snakes
Which of the following hypotheses were tested and supported by the data presented?
Artificial snakes painted to resemble king snakes will be attacked less frequently by predators than will artificial brown snakes when they are both deployed in areas where coral snakes naturally occur. AND artificial snakes painted to resemble king snakes will be attacked more frequently by predators than will artificial brown snakes when they are both deployed in areas where coral snakes do not naturally occur.
Controlled Experiment
A component of the process of science whereby a scientist carries out two parallel tests: an experimental test and a control test. The experimental test differs from the control by one factor, the variable.
An ecosystem can be defined as
all the living things plus the abiotic/physical factors in an area
In which type of interaction do both partners benefit (+/+)?
mutualism
Competition for a resource becomes more intense as the availability of that resource
decreases
In a parasitic relationship the parasite obtains nourishment from its host and is detrimental to its host.
true
Which trophic level contains the photosynthetic organisms?
Producer
Which trophic level contains the herbivores?
primary consumer
Which trophic level contains carnivores?
secondary consumer
Which of the following terms indicates animals that eat detritus?
detritivores
Which is more realistic: a food web or a food chain?
food web
Species diversity of agricultural ecosystems tends to be lower than that of natural ecosystems.
true
Primary succession takes longer than secondary succession because soil must be formed from bare rock in primary succession, but soil is already present in secondary succession.
true
The reversion of abandoned farm fields to forest is an example of _________ succession.
secondary
Invasive species do not spread from the point of introduction.
false
In Australia, rabbits introduced from Europe became an invasive species whose populations were eventually suppressed by introduction of
virus(pathogens)
The matter of which ecosystems are made is repeatedly recycled, whereas energy flows through the ecosystem and must be replenished from outside the ecosystem.
true
Where is primary productivity greater: tropical forests or temperate deciduous forests?
tropical rain forest
When energy flows as organic matter through trophic levels of an ecosystem, about how much are "lost" between one level and the next level?
80-95%
The dynamics of energy flow apply to humans, too. Which type of diet could ultimately support the greater number of humans?
vegetarian
The main biological process that brings inorganic carbon "down" from the atmosphere and incorporates it into organic molecules is
photosynthesis
Which process appears to be largely responsible for increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that have been linked to global climate change?
burning of wood and fossil fuels
Community 2, 742
An assemblage of all the organism living together and potentially interacting in a particular area.
Ecosystem 2
All the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact/ a biological community and its physical environment.
Trophic structure 746
The feeding relationships among the various species making up the community
Food chain 746
The sequence of food transfer up the trophic levels
Food web 747
A network of interconnecting food chains.
Producer 746
Organisms at the bottom trophic level that support all others consist of autotrophs.
(ex. photosynthetic producers, cyanobacteria)
Primary consumer 746
An herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat plants.
Secondary consumer 746
an organism that feeds on primary consumers/ a carnivore.
Tertiary consumer 746
a carnivore that feeds on other carnivores.
Photoautotroph G20 ( glossary)
an organism, such as all green plants, that can synthesize its own food from inorganic material using light as a source of energy
Chemoheterotroph (in lecture)
A type of organism that must consume organic molecules for their carbon source and to obtain energy. Eg. All types of consumers
Chemoautotroph glossary
An organism, typically a bacterium that derives energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds
Herbivore 746
animals that eat plants or algae
Carnivore 746
Animals that eat meat
Insectivore (dictionary)
Animals that eat insects
Detritivore 746
Consumers of the dead material detritus (eg. animal waste, plant liter, and dead organisms) and digest it inside their bodies
Phytoplankton 746
photosynthetic or plant constituent of plankton/ mainly unicellular algae
Zooplankton 746
Plankton consisting of small animals and the immature stages of larger animals
Chemical cycling 754
758 Given an unlabelled diagrams of the carbon cycle on page 755 you need to be able to label organisms in it with respect to the trophic level, Domains, and Kingdoms they belong to. You are also responsible for an understanding of the abiotic and biotic compartments and the processes that move carbon between them.
Energy pyramid 753
Respiration Formula
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H20
Photosynthesis formula
6CO2 + 6H20 → C6H12O6 + 6O2
Types of fossil fuels
Oil, coal, natural gas
first law of thermodynamics
the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes
second law of thermodynamics
With each change in form, some energy is degraded to a less useful form and given off into the surroundings, usually as low-quality heat
Define predation: 742
The interaction between species in which one species, the predator, kills and eats another, the prey.
Define and provide examples for mutualism 743 and parasitism 745
Mutualism: Both partners benefit in the relationship
Parasitism: heartworms/dog
Bacteria and Archaea consist of ___________ cells.
prokaryotic
One big difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that although both cell types contain DNA only eukaryotic cells enclose the DNA in an internal membrane and are said to have a true nucleus.
true
Eukaryotic cells are typically larger than prokaryotic cells.
true
Which of the following does a plant cell have that an animal cell lacks?
cell wall, chloroplast
functions: nucleus
make DNA
functions: ribosomes
make protein
functions: rough ER
make protein
functions: smooth ER
make lipids
functions: Golgi apparatus
make lysosomes
functions: lysosome
breakdown and recycling of "old" organelles and molecules
functions: mitochondria
produce ATP from food (cellular respiration)
functions: chloroplast
photosynthesis
functions: cytoskeleton
maintenance of cell shape, movement of organelles
Which animal cell organelle contains its own DNA and ribosomes similar to those of prokaryotes?
mitochondria
Some problems with human sperm motility may result from impairment of _______ by ______.
flagella, phthalate pollutants
Animal Cell structure
Plant Cell Structure
Prokaryotic Cell Structure
What are the similarities and fundamental differences between prokaryotic 55 and eukaryotic 56 cells?
Recall Whittaker's 5 Kingdoms and tell which have prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells.
Monera: prokaryotic
Protista: Eukaryotic
Plantae: Eukaryotic
Fungi: Eukaryotic
Animalia: Eukaryotic
What are membrane-bound (membranous) organelles, and in which cell type do they occur? 56
Organelles are in the cytoplasm. Occur in eukaryotic cells
Plasma membrane
Forms a boundary between a living cells and its surroundings and controls the traffic of materials into and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm
The entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
Ribosomes
Tiny structures that make proteins according to instructions from the genes
Nucleus
Contains most of the cells DNA and controls the cell's activities by directing protein synthesis.
Rough ER
highway of the cell, holds ribosomes, Makes more membrane, phospholipids are made by enzymes. Has ribosomes attached to its surface.
Smooth ER
Synthesis of lipids, including oils, phospholipids, and steroids. Helps to process drugs and other potentially harmful substances. Stores calcium.
Golgi apparatus
Consists of flattened sacs stacked on top of each other. Performs several functions in close partnership with the ER. Receives and modifies products manufactured by the ER. Vesicles on the other side bud off and travel to other sites.
Lysosomes
Consists of digestive enzymes enclosed in a membranous sac. The enzymes are made by rough ER and then transferred to the Golgi apparatus for further processing.
Mitochondria
Organelles that carry out cellular respiration in nearly all eukaryotic cells, converting the chemical energy of foods such as sugars to the chemical energy of a molecule called ATP
Chloroplasts
photosynthesizing organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes.
Central vacuole (plant cell, page 57)
Helps a cell grow in size by absorbing water and enlarging, and it can store vital chemicals or waste products
Cell wall
Rigid extracellular structure not only protects the cell but provides the skeletal support and keeps plants upright on land.
Plasmodesmata
Channels between adjacent plant cells, form a circulatory and communication system connecting the cells in plant tissues.
Cytoskeleton
Network of protein fibers, extending thoughout the cytoplasm of a cell
The bilayer cell membrane is mostly composed of which type of lipid?
phospholipids
Which part of a phospholipid is "water-fearing" (hydrophobic)?
head
Diffusion involves the spontaneous movement of particles from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration.
false
Passive transport can occur as the result of the diffusion of which non-polar molecules directly through lipid portion of the membrane bilayer?
oxygen and carbon dioxide
Facilitated diffusion of water-soluble materials across cell membranes is accomplished by
membrane proteins
Which molecule supplies most of the energy for active transport?
ATP
Which type of active transport do cells use to export (secrete) bulky molecules from the inside of cells to the outside of cells?
exocytosis
Faulty membranes can overload the blood with cholesterol due to a failure of _______________ of LDL particles.
receptor-mediated endocytosis
An enzyme is usually what type of molecule?
protein
Which part of an enzyme binds to and acts upon/alters the substrate?
active site
Indicate the major chemical components of the cell membrane, and describe their organization/location within the membrane. 74, 75
Phospholipid and Proteins: mosaic of diverse protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer made of phospholipid molecules
Structural proteins Strobel
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"Identification" proteins Strobel
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Enzymes 74, 84
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Receptor proteins 74
A protein that binds selectively to a specific molecule (such as an intercellular mediator or antigen) and initiates a biological response
Transport proteins 74, 77,78
involved in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein across a biological membrane.
concentration gradient 75
An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area.
diffusion 75
The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area
facilitated diffusion 77
The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to specific carrier proteins, across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients
passive transport 75
The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane
active transport 78
The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins
exocytosis 79
The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane
endocytosis 79
The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance and pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle
Enzymes: what they do for cells, and how they do it. 84,85
How can enzymes be denatured, and how does this affect their activity? 85
Extreme temperatures, it loses its catalytic power
Substrate
The reactant on which an enzyme works
Active site
The specific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds
Product(s)
What is produced
Endergonic Reaction
A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
Exergonic Reaction
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy
Competitive Inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics
Noncompetitive Inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate
Competitive Inhibitor vs. Noncompetitive Inhibitor
Biosphere
the regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
Ecosystem
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
Community
a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and Interacting with each other
Population
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
Organism
an individual living thing
Organ system
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Organ
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
Tissue
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
Organelle
membrane bound structure inside a cell that performs a specific function
Molecule
a particle made of two or more atoms bonded together