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BCH 4053 FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (103)
All are distinctive properties of living systems EXCEPT:
living organisms are relatively simple
Macromolecules are exquisitely organized in their intricate 3D architecture known as:
4 most common elements in the human body?
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon
What makes carbon such an abundant element in biomolecules?
it forms stable covalent bonds by electron pair sharing
The major precursors for the formation of biomolecules are?
carbon dioxide, nitrate and dinitrogen, water, and ammonium ion
From the major precursors, the complex biomolecules are made in which sequence?
metabolites, building blocks, macromolecules, supramolecular complexes
Supramolecular complexes of multiple components are bonded to each other by all except:
Which is the following is a true statement about non-covalent bonds?
H bonds, ionic bonds, and hydrophobic interactions all carry a degree of specificity while VDW are induced
include ionic interactions between negatively charged carboxyl groups and positively charged amino groups
All are true about hydrophobic interactions except:
hydrophobic interactions result from hydrogen bonds between water and hydrophobic molecules
Denaturation occurs when:
addition of strong acid/base, change in ionic strength, dramatic increase in temp.
Is water an acid or a base?
Water is both an acid and a base
The inflection point of the titration curve for a weak monoprotic acid is equal to its pKa
the extent to which a buffer solution can counteract the effect of added acid or base
Main intracellular buffer system
H2PO4- and HPO42-
A common reaction of two cysteine residues in proteins results in the formation of:
All of the info necessary for a protein to achieve its intricate architecture is contained within its __________ structure.
3D arrangement of all atoms in a single peptide
Which of the peptides would absorb light at 280 nm?
Characteristics or pyrimidines:
heterocyclic, 6-membered ring, 2 nitrogens separated by a carbonyl, conjugated
SARS-CoV-2 is the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19
HIV is a DNA virus and SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus
The primary receptor for HIV on human cells is
PCR. At cycle i, Ni=2^i
Molecular testing for the COVID-19 patients consists of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction tests specific for the RNA form this novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2
Purine are guanine, thymine, and uracil
kcat (turn over number) defines the number of substrate molecules converted into product/enzyme molecule/unit of time when the enzyme is saturated with substrate
Enzymes will change the positions of the equilibrium between reactants and products
is numerically equal to the substrate concentration required to achieve one half the maximum velocity
k2 can be numerically much greater than k1
what equation defines a system at equilibrium?
The natural tendency of the universe lies in the direction of greater disorder; thus, life is a violation of the second law of thermodynamic
When entropy (S) increases, the free energy (G) also increases
ATP is universal carrier of free energy (G)
When a catalytic residue is covalently modified by an inhibitor, this is irreversible inhibition
In pancreatitis the latent zymogens produced in duodenum flow to pancreas and are activated in pancreas, and then, the activated enzymes digest the pancreas
A competitive inhibitor resembles substrate and competes for binding at the enzyme active site; thus, this is an irreversible inhibitor
All of the following statements about competitive inhibition are correct except:
In the presence of a competitive inhibitor, the apparent Km would be altered and Vmax would be decreased
Which is a six-membered heterocyclic aromatic ring?
All are important functional groups participating in H-bond formation EXCEPT:
the electron density in the double bonds of the bases
Nucleotides have a nitrogenous base linked to a sugar by a:
B-N-acetal (glycosidic) bond
The net charge on nucleotide monophosphates are:
Which of the following statements regarding the structure of DNA is correct?
the two strands have complementary base pairing
All of the following are important characteristics of DNA except:
adenine base pairs with uracil
HIV reverse transcriptase has the following enzymatic activities EXCEPT:
SARS-CoV-2 has a positive-strand (sense) RNA viral genome that can act as mRNA to translate into proteins
Influenza A virus replicates its viral DNA in the cytosol of host cells
Spike (S) proteins on the SARS-CoV-2 viral surface make the virus highly infectious and may be used to make vaccines to fight against COVID-19
SARS-CoV-2 viruses replicate their RNA genome in host cell nucleus
There are no DNA viruses because we only studied RNA viruses
MERS is a viral respiratory illness caused by a type of coronavirus
If carbon 1 is the carbonyl group of an aldohexose, which carbon determines if the sugar is a D- or L- stereoisomer?
The formation of cyclic structures in sugars with creation of an additional asymmetric center results from an alcohol reacting with a(n):
aldehyde or ketone
A cyclic hemiacetal with a 6-membered oxygen-containing ring is referred to as a(n):
Glucose most commonly forms which of the following structures?
a pyranose using the hydroxyl group on carbon 5
Which of the following disaccharides contain a a (1-4) o-glycosidic bond?
Cellulose is homopolysaccharide composed of ______ linked together by ______ glycosidic bonds.
Amylose and glycogen are both glucose polymers, yet they have somewhat different properties. What is one important difference between them?
one is a linear polymer while the other is highly branched
Lactase intolerance is cause by enzyme lactose deficiency
Epimers are carbohydrates which vary in one position for the placement of the -OH group. For example, D-Riobse and D-Arabinose are epimers
Anomers are cyclic monosaccharides or glycosides that are epimers, differing from each other in the configuration of C-1 if they are aldoses or in the configuration at C-2 if they are ketoses. The epimeric carbon in anomers are known as anomeric carbon or anomeric center. For example, a-D-glucose and b-D-glucose are anomers
Both amylose and glycogen are storage forms of fuel found in human liver and muscles
Amolypectin binds to iodine strongly and the complex typically gives a blue color
Alkali hydrolysis of triacylglycerols is called ______ and yields ____ and ______.
saponification; salts of fatty acids; glycerol
All of the following are terpenes EXCEPT:
Cholesterol is a component of animal and human cell membranes
The plasma membrane is composed of mostly lipids and proteins
Integral membrane proteins (intrinsic proteins) are inserted into the membrane and have lateral mobility
Biological membranes are asymmetric structures and their inside and outside may be different, for example, carbohydrates on the glycoprotein and glycolipid are towards the outside of the membranes
Cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and pigment are component of bile acids
Vitamin D is both a hormone and a vitamin. It is derived from cholesterol
Aspirin can inhibit cyclooxygenases (COX1 and COX2)
steroids are complex lipids because their structures are complicated
When our body produces auto-antibodies against myelin, it may lead to multiple sclerosis, and autoimmune disease
Prostagladins are only found in men, not in women
Phosphatidyl Choline is a type of sphingo lipids that is a major component of cell membrane of brain and nerve tissues
Lipids consist of largely hydrocarbon structures that are soluble in water but insoluble in non-polar organic solvents
According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane, the carbohydrate molecules that are attached to lipids and proteins are distributed at the inner side (cytosolic side) of the plasma membrane
Lipid bilayer structures can form vesicles; liposomes are unilamellar structures that can be used to deliver drugs
Linoleic acid is the precursor of leukotrienes that can cause asthma
Both ibuprofen and acetaminofen contain -COOH and are acidic
Metabolism is the collective network of chemical reactions used to extract energy from food and synthesize needed biomolecules
all the coenzymes are organic molecules
coenzymes are needed for carry electrons, metabolic groups, or atoms during metabolic reactions
Two types of electron carriers are pyrimidine nucleotides and flavins
most of the lipid-soluble vitamins are precursors of coenzymes
Vitamin K is also called cobalamin
Pernicious anemia can be caused by lack of intrinsic factor
vitamin D is structurally related to cholesterol
The "3Ds" of chronic alcoholism and vitamin deficiency are diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia
The three macronutrients are carbohydrates, proteins and vitamins
False, lipids not vitamins
minerals are inorganic substances that are required in ionic or free element form for life processes. They are micronutrients
Coenzymes are formed by amino acids
Nicotinic acid (niacin) is the same molecule as the alkaloid nicotine
The precursor of retinol (vit A) is beta-carotene found in carrots and other vegetables
Vitamin E is an antioxidant, thus, it is required for reproduction and can prevent muscular dystrophy in humans
False, in rats
Vitamin D has a regulatory function in blood clotting
False, vitamin K
Calcium is not needed for adult bones
Hypervitaminosis A will lead to severe headaches
Folic acid is not needed for neurotube formation during embryo development
Coenzyme A is needed for pyridine-linked dehydrogenases
Macrominerals such as calcium, sodium, phosphorus are macronutrients
vitamin D is both a vitamin and hormone
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