Explain the Virginia House of Burgesses _____
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Who is John Rolfe _____John Rolfe was a Virginia planter and colonial official who was the husband of Pocahontas, daughter of the Indian chief Powhatan. He sailed for Virginia in 1609, but a shipwreck in the Bermudas delayed his arrival until the following year.How did France make money in the colonies _____The fur tradeWhere were the French colonies _____They initially embraced the shores of the St. Lawrence River, Newfoundland, and Acadia (Nova Scotia) but gradually expanded to include much of the Great Lakes region and parts of the trans-Appalachian West.Who were the Quakers _____members of a group with Christian roots that began in England in the 1650s. The formal title of the movement is the Society of Friends or the Religious Society of Friends.Where did the Quakers settle _____Many Quakers settled in Rhode Island, due to its policy of religious freedom, as well as the British colony of Pennsylvania which was formed by William Penn in 1681 as a haven for persecuted Quakers.Explain the differences between the geography of the New England, Middle and Southern colonies _____The middles colonies had rich farmland and a moderate climate. This made it a more suitable place to grow grain and livestock than New England. Their environment was ideal for small to large farms. The Southern colonies had fertile farmlands which contributed to the rise of cash crops such as rice, tobacco, and indigo.Explain the Middle Passage and the growth of slavery in the southern region of the British Colonies _____The Middle Passage was the stage of the triangular trade in which millions of Africans were forcibly transported to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. With ideal climate and available land, property owners in the southern colonies began establishing plantation farms for cash crops like rice, tobacco and sugar cane—enterprises that required increasing amounts of labor. To meet the need, wealthy planters turned to traders, who imported ever more human chattel to the colonies,Explain the practice of Salutary Neglect _____Salutary neglect, policy of the British government from the early to mid-18th century regarding its North American colonies under which trade regulations for the colonies were laxly enforced and imperial supervision of internal colonial affairs was loose as long as the colonies remained loyal to the British government and contributed to the economic profitability of Britain.Who is John Locke _____English philosopher whose works lie at the foundation of modern philosophical empiricism and political liberalism. He was an inspirer of both the European Enlightenment and the Constitution of the United States. His philosophical thinking was close to that of the founders of modern science, especially Robert Boyle, Sir Isaac Newton, and other members of the Royal Society. His political thought was grounded in the notion of a social contract between citizens and in the importance of toleration, especially in matters of religion. Much of what he advocated in the realm of politics was accepted in England after the Glorious Revolution of 1688-89 and in the United States after the country's declaration of independence in 1776.What was the proclamation of 1763 _____The Proclamation of 1763 was issued by the British at the end of the French and Indian War to appease Native Americans by checking the encroachment of European settlers on their lands.Explain the significance of the French and Indian War and the Treaty of Paris 1763 _____The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France, as well as their respective allies. In the terms of the treaty, France gave up all its territories in mainland North America, effectively ending any foreign military threat to the British colonies there.What were the Coercive Acts _____The Coercive Acts of 1774, known as the Intolerable Acts in the American colonies, were a series of four laws passed by the British Parliament to punish the colony of Massachusetts Bay for the Boston Tea Party.List the Coercive Acts _____Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Government Act, Administration of Justice Act, Quartering Act.What was the Boston Tea Party _____The Boston Tea Party was a political protest that occurred on December 16, 1773, at Griffin's Wharf in Boston, Massachusetts. American colonists, frustrated and angry at Britain for imposing "taxation without representation," dumped 342 chests of tea, imported by the British East India Company into the harbor. The event was the first major act of defiance to British rule over the colonists. It showed Great Britain that Americans wouldn't take taxation and tyranny sitting down, and rallied American patriots across the 13 colonies to fight for independence.What were the Committees of Correspondences _____Committees of Correspondence were the American colonies' first institution for maintaining communication with one another. They were organized in the decade before the Revolution, when the deteriorating relationship with Great Britain made it increasingly important for the colonies to share ideas and information.Who wrote Common Sense and what did it argue for _____On January 9, 1776, writer Thomas Paine publishes his pamphlet "Common Sense," setting forth his arguments in favor of American independence.What was the 1st Great Awakening _____The First Great Awakening or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its thirteen North American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s. The revival movement permanently affected Protestantism as adherents strove to renew individual piety and religious devotion.Who wrote the majority of the Declaration of Independence _____Thomas JeffersonWhat enlightenment idea does the Declaration of independence argue for _____the idea that all people are entitled to certain rights just by virtue of being human, the belief that a government's legitimacy comes from the consent of the governed, the idea that a government's main purpose is to protect the rights of the people.On what day did the 2nd Continental Congress adopt the Declaration of Independence _____July 4, 1776Explain the Boston Massacre _____The Boston Massacre was a street fight that occurred on March 5, 1770, between a "patriot" mob, throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks, and a squad of British soldiers. Several colonists were killed and this led to a campaign by speech-writers to rouse the ire of the citizenry. This took place three years before the Boston Tea PartyWhere was the shot heard around the world _____DeCosta July 29, 1775. The first shots were fired just after dawn in Lexington, Massachusetts the morning of the 19th, the "Shot Heard Round the World." The colonial militia, a band of 500 men, were outnumbered and initially forced to retreat.What was the Olive Branch Petition _____The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775, and signed on July 8 in a final attempt to avoid war between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies in America.Explain the significance of Valley Forge _____Valley Forge was where the American Continental Army made camp during the winter of 1777-1778. It was here that the American forces became a true fighting unit. Valley Forge is often called the birthplace of the American Army.Explain the Significance of Saratoga _____The Battle of Saratoga occurred in September and October, 1777, during the second year of the American Revolution. It included two crucial battles, fought eighteen days apart, and was a decisive victory for the Continental Army and a crucial turning point in the Revolutionary War.What was the role of Native Americans in the American Revolution _____Indians fought in the Revolution for Indian liberties and Indian homelands, not for the British empire. But the image of Indian participation presented in the Declaration of Independence prevailed: most Americans believed that Indians had backed monarchy and tyranny.Explain the results of the Treaty of Paris 1783 _____The Treaty of Paris was signed by U.S. and British Representatives on September 3, 1783, ending the War of the American Revolution. Based on a 1782 preliminary treaty, the agreement recognized U.S. independence and granted the U.S. significant western territory.What did the Northwest Land Ordinance of 1787 do _____Also known as the Ordinance of 1787, the Northwest Ordinance established a government for the Northwest Territory, outlined the process for admitting a new state to the Union, and guaranteed that newly created states would be equal to the original thirteen states.What was the name of the first ruling document in the United States _____Articles of Confederation: Primary Documents in American History. Ratified on March 1, 1781, the Articles of Confederation served as the United States' first constitution.What where the main problems with the Articles of Confederation _____Congress is Unable to Control Commerce Between America and Foreign Nations. Under the Articles of Confederation, Congress lacked the authority to regulate commerce, making it unable to protect or standardize trade between foreign nations and the various states.What was the main goal of the Constitutional Convention _____The Constitutional Convention took place from May 14 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The point of the event was decide how America was going to be governed.What was the significance of Shay's Rebellion _____Shay's Rebellion exposed the weakness of the government under the Articles of Confederation and led many—including George Washington—to call for strengthening the federal government in order to put down future uprisings.What was the Great Compromise _____The Great Compromise created two legislative bodies in Congress. According to the Great Compromise, there would be two national legislatures in a bicameral Congress.What was the 3/5ths Compromise _____Three-fifths compromise, compromise agreement between delegates from the Northern and the Southern states at the United States Constitutional Convention (1787) that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.Who and what are Federalists _____Federalism was born in 1787, when Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison wrote 85 essays collectively known as the Federalist papers. These eloquent political documents encouraged Americans to adopt the newly-written Constitution and its stronger central government.What were the Federalist Papers _____The Federalist Papers is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the collective pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.Who were the anti-federalists _____Anti-Federalism was a late-18th century movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution. A loose political coalition of popular politicians, such as Patrick Henry, who unsuccessfully opposed the strong central government envisioned in the U.S. Constitution of 1787 and whose agitations led to the addition of a Bill of Rights.How does the Electoral College Work _____In nearly every state, the candidate who gets the most votes wins the "electoral votes" for that state, and gets that number of voters (or "electors") in the "Electoral College." Second, the "electors" from each of the 50 states gather in December and they vote for president.How long do you serve in the House of Representatives _____Two yearsHow long do you serve in the Senate _____Six yearsHow long do you serve as the President _____Four YearsHow many Senators does each state have _____TwoHow many Representatives does each state have _____It depends on the population of the stateWhat is a presidential veto _____The power of the President to refuse to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevent its enactment into law is the veto. The president has ten days (excluding Sundays) to sign a bill passed by Congress.What are reserved powers and enumerated according to the constitution _____The enumerated powers listed in Article One include both exclusive federal powers, as well as concurrent powers that are shared with the states, and all of those powers are to be contrasted with reserved powers that only the states possess. Reserved powers, residual powers, or residuary powers are the powers which are neither prohibited or explicitly given by law to any organ of government. Such powers, as well as general power of competence, are given because it is impractical to detail in legislation every act allowed to be carried out by the state.Explain Marbury v. Maddison _____A landmark U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, meaning that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and some government actions that they find to violate the Constitution of the United StatesWho was behind the first two political parties _____Federalist Party, created largely by Alexander Hamilton, and the rival Jeffersonian Democratic-Republican Party, formed by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, usually called at the time the Republican PartyWhat were the first two political party names _____Federalist and Democratic-RepublicanWhat was the main message of George Washington's farewell address _____In his farewell Presidential address, George Washington advised American citizens to view themselves as a cohesive unit and avoid political parties and issued a special warning to be wary of attachments and entanglements with other nations. Washington warns the people that political factions may seek to obstruct the execution of the laws created by the government or to prevent the branches of government from exercising the powers provided them by the constitution.What were the Alien and Sedition Acts _____The Alien and Sedition Acts were four laws passed by the Federalist-dominated 5th United States Congress and signed into law by President John Adams in 1798. Alien and Sedition Acts, (1798), four internal security laws passed by the U.S. Congress, restricting aliens and curtailing the excesses of an unrestrained press, in anticipation of an expected war with France.Why is the election of 1800 referred to as the "Revolution of 1800" _____In what is sometimes referred to as the "Revolution of 1800", Vice President Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party defeated incumbent President John Adams of the Federalist Party. The election was a political realignment that ushered in a generation of Democratic-Republican leadership.Explain the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 _____The Louisiana Purchase (1803) was a land deal between the United States and France, in which the U.S. acquired approximately 827,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River for $15 million.What does the Louisiana Purchase do for the United States _____The Louisiana Purchase eventually doubled the size of the United States, greatly strengthened the country materially and strategically, provided a powerful impetus to westward expansion, and confirmed the doctrine of implied powers of the federal Constitution.Who was the president during the Louisiana Purchase _____On October 20, 1803, the Senate ratified a treaty with France, promoted by President Thomas Jefferson, that doubled the size of the United States.Explain the causes and impacts of the War of 1812 _____In the War of 1812, caused by British restrictions on U.S. trade and America's desire to expand its territory, the United States took on the greatest naval power in the world, Great Britain. The War of 1812 changed the course of American history. Because America had managed to fight the world's greatest military power to a virtual standstill, it gained international respect. Furthermore, it instilled a greater sense of nationalism among its citizens.What was the significance of the Monroe Doctrine _____The Monroe Doctrine is the best known U.S. policy toward the Western Hemisphere. Buried in a routine annual message delivered to Congress by President James Monroe in December 1823, the doctrine warns European nations that the United States would not tolerate further colonization or puppet monarchs.What was the corrupt bargain and who became president because of it _____Americans went to the polls in the fall of 1824. Though Jackson won the popular vote, he did not win enough Electoral College votes to be elected. The decision fell to the House of Representatives, who met on February 9, 1825. Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson. Narrowly lost presidential election to John Quincy Adams ("Corrupt Bargain") even though he was more popular with the masses.What was the goal of the American System _____make America economically self-sufficient assist the United States in becoming self-sufficient economically, while spurring massive market growth throughout the nation. Most hoped that this growth would eliminate regional boundaries and draw the country together.Explain the significance of the election of 1828 _____Jackson's victory over Adams marked the start of Democratic dominance in federal politics. With the collapse of the Federalist Party, four members of the Democratic-Republican Party, including Jackson and Adams, had sought the presidency in the 1824 election.What was the policy of native americans during the Jackson presidency _____The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830, authorizing the president to grant lands west of the Mississippi in exchange for Indian lands within existing state borders. A few tribes went peacefully, but many resisted the relocation policy.What was the American System coined by Henry Clay _____This "System" consisted of three mutually reinforcing parts: a tariff to protect and promote American industry; a national bank to foster commerce; and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other "internal improvements" to develop profitable markets for agriculture.What was the problem the south had with the Tariff of 1816 _____The North liked the tariffs because that was where most of the factories were. The South did not like the tariff because it made Southerners pay more for their goods. The Tariff of 1816, also known as the Dallas Tariff, is notable as the first tariff passed by Congress with an explicit function of protecting U.S. manufactured items from overseas competition. The protective Tariff of 1816, as part of the 'American System' made it possible for the government galvanize the manufacturing industries in America. The country saw the emergence of 'King Cotton' as a cash crop in the South and the growth of textile mills, breweries and distilleries and other factories in the north.How did the cotton gin increase the demand for slaves in the southern states _____While it was true that the cotton gin reduced the labor of removing seeds, it did not reduce the need for slaves to grow and pick the cotton. In fact, the opposite occurred. Cotton growing became so profitable for the planters that it greatly increased their demand for both land and slave labor.Who were William Lloyd Garrison, Frederick Douglas, and Harriet Beecher Stowe _____Well known AbolitionistsWhat are Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton known for _____founded the organized women's rights movement in the United States.Explain Nat Turner's Rebellion _____Nat Turner's Rebellion was a rebellion of black slaves that took place in Southampton County, Virginia, in August 1831, led by Nat Turner. The rebels killed between 55 and 65 people, at least 51 of whom were white.What was the Temperance Movement _____The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.Explain John C. Calhoun _____John C. Calhoun (1782-1850), was a prominent U.S. statesman and spokesman for the slave-plantation system of the antebellum South. As a young congressman from South Carolina, he helped steer the United States into war with Great Britain and established the Second Bank of the United States.Who gained the right to vote because in part of Andrew Jackson _____Jacksonian democracy was a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States that expanded suffrage to most white men over the age of 21, and restructured a number of federal institutions.Explain the American System _____This "System" consisted of three mutually reinforcing parts: a tariff to protect and promote American industry; a national bank to foster commerce; and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other "internal improvements" to develop profitable markets for agriculture.Explain the Nullification Crisis in 1832 _____confrontation between the state of South Carolina and the federal government in 1832-33 over the former's attempt to declare null and void within the state the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. The resolution of the nullification crisis in favour of the federal government helped to undermine the nullification doctrine, the constitutional theory that upheld the right of states to nullify federal acts within their boundaries.Explain the Missouri Compromise of 1820 _____In an effort to preserve the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states, the Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. In 1854, the Missouri Compromise was repealed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.Explain Manifest Destiny _____Manifest Destiny, a phrase coined in 1845, is the idea that the United States is destined—by God, its advocates believed—to expand its dominion and spread democracy and capitalism across the entire North American continent.Explain the Mexican-American War causes and impacts _____In 1845 the United States annexed Texas and subsequently engaged in a dispute with Mexico over the southern Texas-Mexico border. Texas claimed that its southwest boundary extended to the Rio Grande. Mexico claimed that the boundary was the Nueces River, which is 100 miles (160 kilometers) eastward. The belief in Manifest Destiny helped gain public support for the war despite criticism of Polk's use of executive power and warnings from abolitionists that additional slave states would be created out of the soon-to-be-acquired Mexican lands. By the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (February 2, 1848), Mexico accepted the Rio Grande as its boundary. The treaty also gave the United States Mexico's northern provinces of California and New Mexico. The United States thus acquired vast mineral wealth, especially gold, and extended its border to the Pacific Ocean.Explain the significance of the Kansas-Nebraska Acts _____The Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed each territory to decide the issue of slavery on the basis of popular sovereignty. Kansas with slavery would violate the Missouri Compromise, which had kept the Union from falling apart for the last thirty-four years. The long-standing compromise would have to be repealed.Explain the Compromise of 1850 _____It admitted California as a free state, left Utah and New Mexico to decide for themselves whether to be a slave state or a free state, defined a new Texas-New Mexico boundary, and made it easier for slaveowners to recover runways under the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.Explain the Dred Scott decision _____The Dred Scott decision was the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling on March 6, 1857, that having lived in a free state and territory did not entitle an slaved person, Dred Scott, to his freedom. In essence, the decision argued that, as someone's property, Scott was not a citizen and could not sue in a federal court.What was Lincoln's goal at the start of the war _____In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln had just one goal. This idea was to preserve the Union rather than concentrate on the issue of slavery. Lincoln was prepared to take any actions to save the Union regardless of the slaves being held and laboring in the South.When did Lincoln's goal change _____On September 22, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues a preliminary Emancipation ProclamationWhat was the one advantage the south had over the north during the Civil War ______Southerners enjoyed the initial advantage of morale: The South was fighting to maintain its way of life, whereas the North was fighting to maintain a union. Slavery did not become a moral cause of the Union effort until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.Where were the first shots of the Civil War fired _____Fort Sumter is an island fortification located in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina most famous for being the site of the first shots of the Civil War (1861-65).Explain the Emancipation Proclamation _____President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free."What was the turning point in the Civil War _____Many consider July 4, 1863 to be the turning point of the American Civil War. Two important, famous, well-documented battles resulted in Confederate defeats: the Battle of Gettysburg (Pennsylvania), July 1-3, and the Fall of Vicksburg (Mississippi), July 4.Explain the Compromise of 1877 _____The Compromise of 1877 was an informal agreement between southern Democrats and allies of the Republican Rutherford Hayes to settle the result of the 1876 presidential election and marked the end of the Reconstruction era.Explain the 13th, 14th, and 15th AmendmentsThe 13th Amendment abolished slavery, the 14th gives citizenship, and the 15th gives black men the right to voteWhat was the agenda of the Radical Republicans during Reconstruction _____The Radical Republicans believed blacks were entitled to the same political rights and opportunities as whites. They also believed that the Confederate leaders should be punished for their roles in the Civil War.What was Lincoln's plan for Reconstruction _____The Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction was Lincoln's plan to reintegrate the Confederate states back into the Union, granting presidential pardons to all Southerners (except political leaders) who took an oath of future allegiance to the Union.What was the Freedmen's Bureau _____A Bureau set up to provide support to newly freed slavesWhy was Andrew Johnson impeached _____The primary charge against Johnson was that he had violated the Tenure of Office Act, passed by Congress in March 1867, over his veto. Specifically, he had removed from office Edwin M. Stanton, the secretary of war—whom the act was largely designed to protect—and attempted to replace him with Brevet Major General Lorenzo Thomas.What is a Carpetbagger and Scalawag _____referred to white Southerners who supported Reconstruction policies and efforts after the conclusion of the American Civil War. As with the term carpetbagger, the word has a long history of use as a slur in Southern partisan debates.Who did the KKK target with the scare-tactics _____In Georgia conservative whites, frustrated with their political failures during 1867, began to look for new ways to defeat their Republican enemies and control the recently enfranchised freedpeople.