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large land mass surrounded by water


land mass of Europe and Asia, not entirely surrounded by water


large body of salt water that surrounds a continent

an early exploration destination

Pacific Ocean

a highway for early explorers, settlers and later immigrants

Atlantic Ocean

a large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean


explored by Lewis and Clark

Columbia River

body of water explored by the Spanish

Colorado River

forms the border with Mexico

Rio Grande River

used to transport farm and industrial products to ports and other parts of the world

Mississippi and Missouri Rivers

gateway to the West

Ohio River

forms the Northeast border with Canada and connects the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean

St.Lawrence River

large body of water surrounded by land on all sides


inland port cities grew in the midwest along the __________ _____________

Great Lakes

a part of the ocean that is partially surrounded by land


provided the French and Spanish with exploration routes to Mexico and other parts of America

Gulf of Mexico

-along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico
-broad lowlands providing many excellent harbors

Coastal Plain

-West of Coastal Plain
- extends from Eastern Canada to Western Alabama
- old eroded Mountains, oldest range in North America

Appalachian Highlands

-wrapped around Hudson Bay in a horseshoe shape
-hills worn by erosion
-hundreds of lakes carved by glaciers

Canadian Shield

-west of the Appalachian Mountains and East of the Great Plains
-rolling flatlands with many rivers, broad river valleys, and grassy hills

Interior Lowlands

West of the interior lowlands and East of the Rocky Mountains
-rugged mountains stretching from Alaska to almost Mexico, high elevations, contains the continental divide which determines the directional flow of rivers

Rocky Mountains

West of the Rocky Mountains, East of the Sierra Nevadas and the Cascades
-area of varying elevations, Death Valley
-lowest point in North America

Basin and Range

The recovery of material evidence from the past.


-Oldest archaeological site in North America
- Located on the Nottoway in Southeastern Va.

Cactus Hill

-lived in present day Alaska and Canada
-located in the arctic where the temperature is below freezing much of the year


-located in Pacific Northwest Coast
-had a rainy, mild climate
-lived in plank houses, made totem poles


-located in the Great Plains
-lived in tepees, used buffalo for food, clothing, shelter


-located in Southwest present day New Mexico and Arizona
- lived in adobe and cliff dwellings


-located in Eastern Woodlands
-heavily forested, longhouses


-Europeans brought weapons and meral farm tools
- trade

Areas of Cooperation between Europeans and Native Americans

-competition for ttrade
-differences in culture
- disease

Areas of conflict between Europeans and Native Americans

-conquered and enslaved American Indians
-brought Christianity
-brought diseases


-established trading posts
-spread Christianity


-established settlements
-claimed land
-learned farming techniques
-trades with American Indians


-taught farming techniques to European settlers
-believed that land was to be shared or used but not owned

American Indians

-God, Gold, Glory
- to spread religion
-look for gold and natural resources
competition for empire, belief in superiority of own culture

Motivations for Exploration

-poor maps and navigational tools
-fear of the unknown
-lack of adequate supplies

Obstacles to exploration

-exchanged goods and ideas
-improved navigational tools and ships
-claimed territories

Accomplishments of Exploration

-controlled trade in West Africa
-increased European interest in world resources
-located in Western Africa

Ghana, Mali and Songhai

traded metal, cloth and other manufactured goods for gold in West Africa


claimed the Southwest of the United States for Spain

Francisco Coronado

established the French settlement of Quebec

Samuel De Champlain

claimed the Mississippi River for France

Robert LaSalle

explored Eastern Canada for England

John Cabot

Made voyages of discovery along West Africa.


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