U.S. History Midterm Study Guide

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Terms in this set (122)
Battle of Wounded KneeHappened in December 1890. Sitting Bull is killed. The 7th Cavalry rounded up 350 Sioux (freezing and starving) brought to a camp and the U.S. demanded the Sioux give up their weapons. A shot was fired and soldiers opened fire on the Sioux. 300 Sioux were killed in minutesGrangeoriginally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroadsSitting Bullleader of the native Sioux tribe, he led the defeat of Custer at the Battle of little BighornGeorge Custercolonel in the U.S. army in the Black HillsBessemer ProcessDeveloped by Henry Bessemer. Injects air into molten iron to remove impurities. Steel becomes lighter, more flexible, and rust resistant.Transcontinental railroadRailroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental USVertical integrationcontrolling company's suppliers, distributors and transportation systems/ total control of all levels of productionhorizontal integrationthe merging of companies that make similar productsSherman Anti-trust Actmade monopolies illegalThomas Edisonnicknamed "The Wizard of Menlo Park". In 1876 he invented electricity and in 1880 he invented the light bulb. Invented a system for distributing electrical powerAlexander Graham Bellinvented the telephoneAndrew Carnegiescottish immigrant, secretary to PA railroad superintendent, Carnegie Steel Co.John D. RockefellerStandard Oil Company, controlled 90% of oil refining by paying his employees low wage, and driving competitors out of business by selling oil for less than what it costs to produce it and then hiked up prices.J.P. MorganBanker, created a holding company, bought stock in other companies, bought Carnegie SteelWhy was the Bessemer process important in U.S. History?Steel was now stronger and less easy to break so more technology and machinery was able to be developedWhy was it important to make monopolies illegal?So one company would own all of one product and sell it for astronomical prices.Ellis IslandImmigration processing center in New York HarborAngel IslandImmigration processing center in San Francisco BayMelting potthe mixing of cultures, ideas, and peoples that has changed the American nation.Nativismfavoritism towards native born AmericansTenementa multi-family urban apartment; usually crowded and unsanitarySettlement housescommunity centers that were mostly in slum neighborhoods. Provided educational, cultural, and social servicesAmericanization movementa movement to assimilate people into American culture by teaching immigrants English, American history and gov., how to cook with American ingredients and appliances, and social etiquetteUrbanizationgrowth of citiesPolitical machinean organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a cityGraftillegal use of political influence for personal gainCivil Servicethose civilian employees who perform the administrative work of governmentPendleton Civil Service Actcivil service jobs based on an examWilliam "Boss" TweedHead of Tammany Hall (NYC Democratic political machine). Defrauded the city, arrested twice and escaped to SpainJames A. Garfield20th US president who was assassinated in Washington DCRutherford B. Hayesrepublican, president after Ulysses S. Grant. Was for political reformWhat were some of the ways political machines would gain their power?Offered services to voters and businesses in exchange for political or financial support. Offered government jobs, promotion, etc.Niagara Movementwas organized to oppose racial segregation and disenfranchisementPoll taxa tax of a fixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person could voteGrandfather clausea clause exempting certain classes of people or things from the requirements of a piece of legislation affecting their previous rights, privileges, or practices.Segregationthe separation or isolation of a race, class or groupJim Crow Lawsstatutes enacted to enforce segregationPlessy v. Fergusona 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal/ "separate but equal"Orville and Wilbur Wrightinvented the first workable airplane in 1903Booker T. Washingtonwas a key proponent of African American businesses and he wrote an autobiography, "Up From Slavery".W.E.B. BuBoisAfrican American leader who believed in getting an education was an important way for African Americans to get ahead/ founder of Niagara Movement and NAACPJoseph PulitzerAmerican newspaper editor and publisher who helped to establish the pattern of the modern newspaper. In his time he was one of the most powerful journalists in the United States.William Randolph Hearstbest known for publishing the largest chain of American newspapers in the late 19th century, and particularly for sensational "yellow journalism."Progressive movementreform movement in the early 20th century aimed at protecting social welfare, promoting moral improvement, creating economic reform, and fostering efficiencyProhibitionthe banning of alcoholic beveragesMuckrakerjournalists who exposed the corrupt side of business and public life in the early 1900sRecalla procedure for removing a public official from office by a vote of the peopleRederenduma procedure by which a proposed legislative measure can be submitted to a vote of the peopleInitiativea procedure by which a legislative measure can be originated by the people rather than by lawmakersSuffragethe right to voteThe Junglebook written by Upton Sinclair which revealed the shocking conditions of the meatpacking industrySquare DealTheodore Roosevelt's promised program of fair and equal treatment for allMeat Inspection Acta law passed by Congress to subject meat shipped over state lines to federal inspectionPure Food and Drug Actstop the sale of contaminated foods and drugs and to ensure truth in labelingNAACPNational Association for the Advancement of Colored PeopleBull Moose Partynickname of the progressive party who supported Teddy Roosevelt during the 1912 presidential electionFederal Reserve Systemthe central bank of the U.S.; divides the nation into 12 banking districtsClayton Anti-trust Act1914 law which strengthened the Sherman Anti-trust Act that fought unfair business practicesFederal Trade Commissiona federal "watchdog" agency established in 1914 to investigate and stop unfair business practices19th Amendmentamendment that gave women the right to voteSusan B. Anthonyleader of the women's suffrage movement in the United StatesUpton Sinclairauthor of the book "The Jungle"Theodore Roosevelt26th President of the US. A progressive reformer. Youngest US president to serve in officeWoodrow WilsonFormer governor of New Jersey, elected president in 1912 on the Democratic ticketWilliam Howard Taft27th president of the US; served as Secretary of War under Teddy RooseveltWhy was the Progressive movement necessary in U.S. History?America saw a lot of social problems at the time being taken care of. Ex., child labor laws, 8 hour work days, and woman's suffrage. Also big businesses started to get exposed for dirty and dangerous work conditions and were being trust bustedImperialismthe policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political or military control over weaker territoriesSeward's FollyWilliam Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million which is rich in timber, minerals and oilSpanish-American WarWar between Spain and America that contributed to the freedom of Cuba from Spanish ruleUSS MaineAmerican war ship that blew up in Havana Harbor when sent to Cuba to bring home Americans in dangerRough RidersVolunteer Cavalry. Led by Leonard Wood and Teddy RooseveltSan Juan Hillmost famous battle of the war. Roosevelt is declared a hero. Spanish ships try to break through the U.S. blockade and the Spanish fleet is destroyedTreaty of Paristreaty that ended the Spanish American war (1898). Provided that Cuba be free from SpainBoxer RebellionChinese rebels who wanted to destroy "foreign devils" and Chinese christian converts attacked foreign embassies in Peking (Beijing), China. The rebellion was put down by a total of 8 nations and trade was kept open between the West and ChinaPanama Canalcanal built through the isthmus of Panama after America helped Panama gain independence from Colombia. Took 10 years to buildDollar Diplomacyusing the U.S. government to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American business peopleWilliam SewardSec. of State under Lincoln and Johnson who bought Alaska from the RussiansPancho VillaMexican Revolutionary general and one of the prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution. Led raids into the Southwestern USJohn J. PershingUS general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture himM.A.I.NMilitarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and NationalismMilitarismdevelopment of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacyAlliancesunion formed for mutual benefitImperialismcompetition for coloniesNationalismstrong pride in one's countryAlliesGreat Britain, France, Russia, the US, and ItalyCentral PowersGermany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman EmpireTriple AllianceGermany, Austria-Hungary, ItalyTriple EntenteFrance, Great Britain, Russiano man's landarea between opposing trenches that was lined with barbed wireTrench warfarea type of combat in which opposing troops fight from trenches facing each otherLusitaniaa British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-boat in 1915 with American passengers on boardZimmerman Notea telegram in which the German foreign minister proposed an alliance with Mexico against the U.S.The Black HandSerbian nationalist organization responsible for killing Archduke Franz FerdinandSelective Service Actact passed by Congress in 1917 authorizing a draft of men for military serviceAmerican Expeditionary ForceAmerican Troops in WWI; led by John J. PershingConscientious objectorperson who refuses to enter the military or bear arms due to moral or religious reasonsArmisticeagreement to stop fightingMustard gasa toxic war gas with sulfide based compounds that raises blisters and attacks the eyes and lungsPropagandaideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a causeFourteen PointsWoodrow Wilson's post WWI plan, most of which was rejected by European leaders following the warLeague of Nationsan organization of nations formed after World War I to promote cooperation and peace. Part of Wilson's 14 Point PlanTreaty of VersaillesTreaty particularly known for its harsh reparations towards the Germans after WWIReparationspayment for damages after a warWar-guilt clauseClause in the Treaty of Versailles that claimed Germany was solely responsible for WWIU BoatsGerman submarines used in WWIArchduke Franz Ferdinandheir to the Austria-Hungarian throne, was assassinated in Sarajevo, started WWIGavrilo Principyoung Serbian who assassinated Franz Ferdinand and his wife SophieAlvin Yorkarmed only with a rifle and a revolver, he killed 25 Germans and captured 132 prisoners: American war heroJohn J. Pershingcommander of American forces in Europe in WWIWoodrow WilsonPresident of the U.S. at the time of WWI. Came up with the 14 point plan. Former governor of New Jersey, elected president in 1912 on the democratic ticketWhy was the Archduke Ferdinand assassinated?Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated bc the Serbians were angry with Austria-HungaryWhy did some people think the Treaty of Versailles was too harsh?Bc Germany had a lot of reparations to pay, such as paying $402 billion for all damages, reducing their army to 100,000 soldiers, giving Alsace-Lorraine back to France, and had to give away most of their land.