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44 terms

Microbiology-Lecture 4

Chapter 9,10,11
STUDY
PLAY
Genetics
Inheritance of biological characteristics
Genome
Total genetics material of a single cell
Gene
Part of chromosomes that create a single enzyme/protein
Codon
Codes for One single amino acid--> triplet code(3 nucleic acid)- an orchestrator that tell them to all line up
Exon
Is the meaningful part of a strand(code)
Intron
A string in the chromosomes-->inter space-no contribution
Splicer enzymes
Form codes--> remove intron from RNA-->create code or message
Genotype
Distinctive genetic makeup of an organism
Phenotype
How the organism looks
E Coli
One Chromosome -4288 genes--> we have 5 time that many genes
AT, CG- What is that?
The nucleic acid they make DNA
Nucleic acids
Purines and pyromidines
How DNA works during transcription
In a eukaryote, DNA never leaves the nucleus, so its information must be copied. This copying process is called transcription and the copy is mRNA. Transcription takes place in the cytoplasm (prokaryote) or in the nucleus (eukaryote).
DNA(RNA) Polymerase
The transcription is performed by an enzyme called RNA polymerase
Transcription
RNA copy
Translation
Makes protein
mRNA
Messanger RNA-caring template message
tRNA
Transfer RNA-amino acid when needed
rRNA
Ribosome RNA-places amino acid in sequence
Ribosomes
rRNA
Enzymes
Organic catalysts-make things happen
Primer RNA
Makes process enzyme-on switch begins process
Operons
The on-off switch positive feedback-if lactose is present, it turns on the lactase gene--> so you can metabolize lactose
Mutations
Most are fixed in the body-drop of genetic code 10 to the 10th power body fixes
Causes
Radiation-ultra violet sun rays- or I131-radiation
Cigarettes
Chemical Plants
Mutation Repair
Cutting and pasting-fixing mutations to not get cancer
Xeroderma pigmentosa
Genetic disorder where people can not repair mutations from the sun
What is the purpose of an Ames Test?
Salmonella bug developed to not fix mutations
Ex. Japan-What is rate of mutation->take DNA-> measure mutagens of environment
Recombinant DNA
Mixing of DNA-not sexual, but an exchange of body fluids
Transformation
Picks up loose DNA-get into cell
Transduction
Contamination of DNA carried in by virus(bacteriophage)
Transposing
"Jumping genes"-changing order of DNA
Conjugation
Sex in a group
DNA Analysis
Paternity,indentification, where you there?(Fingerprints or saliva)-->detective of pherensic
Adult Stem
Cell de-pression
Superweeds
Yesterdays potatoes gone crazy
Gene probes
Specific nucleotide sequence-->tag with florescent tag
What is gene probe used for?
Quicker-->quick results can use antibiotics to treat actual problem
Recombinant DNA
Take segment for missing gene put it into a cell of infant via a phage or take missing gene sequence w/friendly bacteria
Pharming
engineer them to produce what we want them to produce.
Pharming examples
Medications
Vaccines-passive or active
Blood clotting factors
Hormones-insulin
Genetically altered organisms
Antibiotics
Train bacteria to eat cancer cells
Gene Silencing
Stopping expression of bad gene that certain people are susceptible
Ex. Alzheimer--> operon suppression
Genomanalysis
Test of all of a person's DNA