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anatomy and physiology final
Terms in this set (54)
a cross between two individuals, concentrating on only one definable trait
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
how many chromosomes do humans have?
46 (23 pairs)
how many chromosome pairs are autosomes?
cells with paired chromosomes
cells with unpaired chromosomes
when gametes combine, what results?
how many times does a cell divide during meiosis?
dna is replicated in the phase
chromosomes become condensed and are visible with a microscope in this phase
homologous chromosomes pair to form a tetrad during this phase
recombination occurs in this phase
during recombination, chromosomes overlap to form a variety of different genetic combinations, the points in which the chromosomes overlap are called _____
up to how many times can recombination occur in a homologous pair?
nucleolus disappears, meiotic spindle fibers form, and the nuclear envelope disappears during this phase
made of microtubules and proteins, and connects centrioles at opposite poles of the cell
homologous pairs line up at the center of the cell and meiotic spindle fibers attach to chromosomes during this phase
where do homologous chromosomes line up at during metaphase?
two chromosomes of each tetrad are pulled to opposite poles of the cell by the spindle fibers, sister chromatids are still attached at centromeres during this phase
the region of a chromosome to which the microtubules of the spindle attach during cell division
foursome during meiosis made by two homologous chromosomes that have each already replicated into a pair of sister chromatids
nuclear envelope forms around each new set of chromosomes, meiotic spindle disappears and chromosomes pair at the poles during this phase
cleavage furrow forms, cell is pinched into two cells, each new cell has a haploid set of chromosomes
interphase occurs in meiosis II (t/f)
centrioles duplicate, nuclear envelope disappears, and meiotic fibers form during this phase
chromosomes line up at metaphase plate and microtubules from each pole attach to centromeres of chromosomes during this phase
centromeres separate, chromatids are pulled to opposite poles, and separated chromatids are now considered chromosomes during this phase
nuclear envelope forms around each new set of chromosomes and spindle fibers disappear during this phase
four daughter cells are produced during this final phase
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate.
homologous chromosomes don't separate during meiosis I, sister chromatids fail to separate during meiosis II, too many to too few chromosomes result
three copies of a chromosome
one copy of a chromosome
what is the smallest human chromosome?
frequency of down syndrome correlates with the age of the mother (t/f)
a technique of prenatal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus, is analyzed to detect certain genetic defects in the fetus
when would an amniocentesis procedure take place?
2nd trimester (16-20 wks)
a chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome (sterile, slight breast development, lack of facial hair, tall)
a chromosomal disorder in which males have an extra Y chromosome (tall, delayed emotional maturity, may have learning disabilities)
a chromosomal disorder in which females have three X chromosomes (produces healthy females)
inactivated X chromosomes found only in females
a chromosomal disorder in which females only have one X chromosome (webbed neck, short stature, sterile)
loss of a chromosomal segment
repeat of a chromosomal segment
reverses a chromosomal segment
moves a chromosomal segment from one chromosome to another
deletions and duplications are both errors that occur during ____
inversions and translocation are errors that occur in ____
a cross between two individuals, concentrating on two definable traits
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele, resulting in both alleles being expressed
traits controlled by genes located on sex chromosomes
mendel's law that states that genes separate independently of one another during meiosis
law of independent assortment
mendel's law that states one allele is dominant over the other allele, the recessive allele is only expressed when it is paired with another recessive allele
law of dominance
mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
law of segregation
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