Zajonc resolved the conflicting findings on how the presence of others influences performance with the help of the well-established principle in experimental psychology that arousal
enhances whatever response tendency is dominant.
The presence of others is likely to lead to better performance in ______ and to worse performance in ______.
raking leaves; solving complex mathematical problems
When the mere presence of others strengthens the dominant response, _____ has occurred.
Social psychologists refer to our concern for how others are evaluating us as
Sanders and his colleagues have suggested that we are aroused in the presence of others, not only because of evaluation apprehension, but also because we
Social loafing would be most likely to occur in
college students working on a group project for which they will all receive the same grade.
Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to
exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal.
Evidence of social loafing has been found in which of the following?
collective farms run in communist Russia and China
When groups are given challenging objectives, when they are rewarded for group success, and when there is a spirit of commitment to the team, group members
work hard and make their best effort.
Prejudice biases us against an individual based solely on
the person's identification with a particular group.
Which of the following clearly meets the definition of a stereotype?
Gretchen believes the British are cool and unexcitable.
A state police force has set a height requirement of 5 feet 10 inches for all officers. This requirement is irrelevant to job effectiveness but generally excludes Hispanics, Asians, and women from the force. Such a requirement most clearly reflects
racism and sexism.
Evidence suggests that explicit prejudice has decreased dramatically over the past century. ______ attitudes reveal that people still hold negative views of other groups.
Although blatant racial prejudice in the United States has subsided, automatic negative emotional reactions still linger. This fact illustrates
a dual attitude system.
Ideas abut how men and women ought to behave are called _____, whereas ideas about how women and men do behave are called _____.
gender-role norms; gender stereotypes
Data from 27 countries show that people everywhere perceive women as more _____ and men as more _____.
Research on automatic attitudes toward other racial/ethnic groups suggests that
these attitudes do affect behavior.
Word, Zanna, and Cooper had White Princeton University men interview both White and Black job applicants. When the applicant was Black, the interviewers _____than when the applicant was White.
sat farther away from the applicant
ended the interview sooner
made more speech errors
In Paul Davies' study of stereotype threat, watching media presentations of "air-headed" women led female participants to
report less interest in a math or science career.
Why do negative stereotypes hinder performance?
stereotype threat is a cognitive distraction and reduces motivation
Betsy and Tina, both third-graders in the same classroom, are assigned by their teacher to different groups that will compete in a spelling bee, Betsy and Tina each believe that their own group is composed of the better spellers. The girls' beliefs best illustrate
Ingroup bias will result when the groups formed
share at least one demographic characteristic (e.g. racial identity).
share a birthday.
have the same last digit on their driver's license.
Studies of Whites by Thomas Pettigrew in South Africa in the 1950s, when apartheid ruled, revealed that those who _____ were also most prejudiced.
conformed most to other social norms
One explanation for the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians is that both groups claim ownership of the same land, which is therefore a scarce resource. This explanation would be supported by
realistic group conflict theory.
Individuals with authoritarian tendencies have
an intolerance for weakness.
a punitive attitude.
a submissive respect for ingroup authority
A belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group and a corresponding disdain for all other groups is called
Frustration, the need for status and belonging, and authoritarianism are all
emotional sources of prejudice.
An important conclusion of research on the authoritarian personality is that prejudices against different minorities
tend to coexist in the same individuals.
Jeremy's belief that earthquake victims are being punished by God for their own sins best illustrates
the just-world phenomenon.
The just-world phenomenon can lead people to
think that the winners of a lottery actually deserved their good fortune.
Which of the following would be an example of aggression as defined in the text?
Luisa urges her classmates not to vote for Marcy for dormitory senator, citing some rumors about Marcy's social life.
The study of neural influences on aggression has indicated that
no one region of the brain controls aggression.
activating the amygdala can facilitate aggressive outbursts in humans.
activating certain brain regions can cause a tyrant monkey to be more docile.
Which of the following statements about aggression is TRUE?
identical twins are more likely than fraternal twins to agree on whether they have violent tempers.
Research on alcohol and aggression has indicated that
violent people are both more likely to drink and more likely to become aggressive when intoxicated.
alcohol enhances aggressiveness by reducing people's self-awareness and ability to consider consequences.
in experiments, intoxicated people administer stronger shocks.
Compared to prisoners convicted of nonviolent crimes, those convicted of unprovoked violent crimes tend to
have higher testosterone levels.
Studies of hormonal influences on aggression indicate that
after age 25, testosterone and rates of violent crime decrease together.
After arguing with her boyfriend Peter over the telephone, Roberta smashes down the receiver and then throws the phone across the room. This behavior most clearly demonstrates
We are most likely to displace our aggression onto a target that is
similar to the person who provoked our anger in the first place.
In a revision of frustration-aggression theory, Berkowitz emphasized the importance of
aggressive cues, such as weapons.
Berkowitz and LePage (1967) found that frustrated men delivered more shocks when
guns happened to be in the room.
According to Albert Bandura, an important influence on one's tendency to be aggressive is
observations of others' behavior.
Bandura's classic study that evaluated the hypotheses of social learning theory used
adults hitting a Bobo doll with a mallet.
Emotional arousal plus anticipated consequences provides the formula for aggression according to
social learning theory.
"Watching violence on television gives people a harmless opportunity to vent their aggression." This statement is most clearly consistent with the ______ hypothesis.
It is the near consensus among social psychologists today that the catharsis hypothesis of aggressive expression, as Freud, Lorenz, and their followers supposed,
has not been confirmed.
Which of the following would be the best advice to give parents who are concerned about the frequent aggressive outbursts of their 8-year-old daughter?
"Make a point of rewarding and praising your daughter whenever she is socially cooperative and helpful."
Viewing fictional scenes of male sexual violence against women has been shown to
distort perceptions of how women actually respond to sexual coercion.
John Court reported that as pornographic materials have become more widely available, the rate of reported rapes has generally been found to
Laboratory experiments confirm that exposure to violent pornography
increases punitive behavior toward women.
Check and Malamuth reported that students who read erotic rape stories and were then fully debriefed about the study's true purpose were
less accepting of the "women enjoy rape" myth than other participants.
Which of the following statements about rape is TRUE?
Most stranger rapes and nearly all acquaintance rapes go unreported to police.
Through surveys of women, researchers found that more than one-quarter of women reported an experience that meets the legal definition of rape or attempted rape.
Men who behave in sexually coercive ways are typically sexually promiscuous.
As an alternative to strict censorship of pornography portraying sexual violence, many psychologists favor
media awareness training designed to promote critical viewing skills.
Experimental evidence on the effects of viewing TV violence leads to the conclusion that
viewing TV violence increases violence.
Bushman and Anderson conclude that the effect of media violence on aggression is stronger than
passive smoking on lung cancer.
calcium intake on bone mass.
homework on academic achievement.
Playing violent video games
increases physiological arousal.
increases aggressive feelings.
increases aggressive behavior.
The fact that we like those people whom we associate with good feelings is most clearly consistent with the ______ theory of attraction.
Research on proximity and social attraction generally supports the view that
familiarity leads to liking.
The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more after repeated exposure to them is referred to as
the mere-exposure effect.
When Gregory White studied some UCLA dating couples, he found that those who were most similar in physical attractiveness were most likely, nine months later, to have
fallen more deeply in love with each other.
When people describe themselves in personal ads seeking partners of the other sex, women who offer _____ receive more responses to their ads.
Which of the following best expresses the meaning of the physical-attractiveness stereotype?
What is beautiful is good.
Using multiple digitized faces to create a composite face increases rating of attractiveness for the composite face. This is probably due to the face's
The evolutionary view of physical attractiveness is supported by research showing that men in many cultures worldwide prefer female characteristics that signify
A motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions is the definition for
the need to belong
Being excluded, avoided, or given the silent treatment leads people to
experience a depressed mood and anxiety.
According to the text, the first step in scientifically studying romantic love is to
define and measure it.
Psychologist Robert Sternberg views love as a triangle whose three sides include all but which of the following?
Research evidence suggests that couples who are strongly in love tend to
make more eye contact.
nod their heads more.
smile more naturally
Which theory suggests that love is a function of physiological arousal along with the label that we give to our arousal?
The affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply intertwined is called
A study of 50 couples in India found that after five years of marriage, those in love-based marriages reported ______ feelings of love and those in arranged marriages showed ______ feelings of love.
Simpson, Campbell, and Berscheid (1986) suspect that the rising divorce rate over the past 20 to 30 years is at least partly due to
the growing importance of passionate love in people's lives.
The natural decline of passionate love over time is considered by some to be
adaptive for species survival.
Melanie believes that her boyfriend enjoys far more benefits from their relationship than she does, even though she invests more time, effort, and resources in their friendship. Clearly, Melanie believes that her relationship with her boyfriend lacks
The tendency of one person's intimacy of self-disclosure to match that of a conversational partner is referred to as
Bill and Sara's relationship becomes progressively more intimate as each engages in a bit more self-revelation in response to the other's self-disclosure. Their relationship is marked by the ______ effect.
Which of the following best describes people who are good "openers," who easily elicit intimate disclosures from others?
They tend to be good listeners.
To marry for "as long as we both shall love" is more characteristic of
individualists than collectivists.
Couples are more likely to stay married if they
grew up in stable, two-parent homes.
married after age 20.
are similar in age, faith, and education
Rusbult and her colleagues have explored three ways that people tend to cope with a failing relationship. Which of the following in NOT one of them?
(otherwise it's neglect, loyalty and voicing concerns)
John Gottman's observation of 2,000 couples led him to conclude that healthy marriages are marked by
an ability to reconcile differences and to overbalance criticism with affection.