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46 terms

Chinese Dynasties

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Name the steps of the Dynastic Cycle
Old DYnasty-> loss of mandate of heaven-> problems-> New dynasty claims mandate-> new dynasty becomes old...^
Shang
(1700 - 1027 BCE)
-First recorded Dynasty (Xia - no written records)
-Ruled by aristocracy
-First Chinese cities, center of court life
-Developed writing, worked with bronze, created silk
-Honored ancestors, used oracle bones
-Shang tyrant emperor overthrown
What was the dynasty without written record
Xia
Zhou
(1027 - 250 BCE)
-Longest lasting Chinese Dynasty
-Beginning of Mandate of Heaven
In the beginning of the Zhou what was the form of government and what was it in the end
-Early: Feudal system, lords had total authority
-Later: City-states
What were achievements of the Zhou
-Built roads, expanded trade, made agricultural advancements
What were the two things introduced in Zhou
Taoism and Confucianism
Why did the Zhou decline?
inefficient rulers can't control fighting between city-states
what is another name for the period during which the Zhou declined
Period of Warring States
WHat dynasty comes after the Zhou
Qin
how many emperors ruled during the Qin
1
Who was emperor during the Qin and describe him
Qin Shihuangdi

Brutal ruler - executed dissenters, burned books
Many enemies, dynasty falls after his death
what did they adopted instead of Taoism and Confucianism
legalism
what were the years of the Qin
(221 - 207 BCE)
describe their govt. in the Qin
Developed highly centralized gov't with bureaucratic administration
name the two main achievements of the Qin
Standardized- currency, language, measurements, laws
Great wall- first part
why does the Qin fall
emperor Qin dies
Who replaces the Qin
Han (202 BCE - 221 CE)
legalism replaced by...
confucianism
name all the achievements of Han
-Introduced civil service examination (scholar bureaucrats)
-Silk Roads developed, opens trade
-calendar
-medical treatments (acupuncture)
- agricultural advancements (fertilizers)
-increased population
-paper invented
what was their religion
buddhism
Decline of the Han Dynasty?
Nomadic raiders attacked
Corruption spread in government
Weak leaders
Collapse of bureaucracy
Warlords control china - no centralized government
Non-Chinese nomads control much of China
Buddhism becomes popular - Confucianism falters
Sui (581 - 618 CE) acievements
-Completed Grand Canal
Sui end
-High taxes, forced labor
-Military failures (couldn't conquer Korea)
-Assassination ends dynasty
Who was the ruler and what was so special about them in the Tang (618 - 907 CE)
Wu Zetian - Only Empress in Chinese history
Why did the Tang decline
Decline
Weak emperors, nomadic incursions, economic difficulties
Warlords take control
What dynasties are part of the golden age
Song, Tang and
Song Song (969 - 1279 CE) what type of govt.
centralized bureaucracy- neo-confucianism
Song achievements
Magnetic compass, growing sea power
Mercantile class grows, increased trade
Song decline
Weak military
Yuan (1279 - 1368 CE) ruler
Mongol: Khubilai Khan conquers China
achievements of the Yuan
Economic stability and prosperity
China more open to trade and travel (Marco Polo)
changes in the Yuan
Ignored Chinese traditions, replaced bureaucrats with non-Chinese
Decline of the Yuan
Unsuccessful attacks on Japan, corruption weakens dynasty
Peasant rebellion ends Yuan
Ming (1368 - 1644 CE) emperor
Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang (a peasant) comes to power
WHat did Zhu Yuanzhang try to do?
erase all signs of Mongols
what was something popularly done in the Ming
Eunuchs play growing role
what were achievements
Rebuilt and extended Great Wall
Collapsed after famines and riots
Forbidden City
Increased sea exploration but then there was as sudden stop
Decline of the Ming
Collapsed after famines and riots
Isolationism cut them off from advancement
Qing 1644 - 1911 CE ruled by
Manchus (from Manchuria) move south
Take Korea, Japan, then China
While in power expand into Burma, Thailand, Laos, Nepal, Vietnam, and Korea.
Qing achievement
"Son of Heaven" concept emphasized
Qing Decline
Would be final Chinese Dynasty
Eventually would be weakened by European / American interventions
The carving of China into Sphere's of Influence leads to the need for revolutionary actions
Puyi will be the last emperor, technically losing his power at age six
which dynasty began the mandate if heaven
Zhou
which dynasty began the civil service exam
Han
which dynasty began the silk roads
Han
Name them all in order
Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing, Republic, Mao Zedong