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MGT 331 Multiple Choice Final
Terms in this set (92)
Two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person.
An interdependent collection of at least two individuals who share a common goal and share accountability for the team's as well as their own outcomes.
A formal group formed by an organization to do its work.
A relatively permanent, formal group with functional reporting relationships and is usually included in the organization chart.
Collections of employees from the same level in the organization who meet on a regular basis to share information, capture emerging opportunities, and solve problems.
A team whose members come from the same department or function area.
A team whose members come from different departments or functional areas.
Teams established to solve problems and make improvements at work.
Teams that set their own goals and pursue them in ways decided by the team.
Teams of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who communicate using the Internet and other information technologies.
Teams with members from different countries.
Is established by its members.
Is relatively permanent and informal and draws its benefits from the social relationships among its members.
Is relatively temporary and informal and is organized around a common activity or interest of its members.
The degree of similarity or difference among group members on factors important to the group's work.
The tendency of some members of groups to put forth less effort in a group than they would when working alone.
A standard against which the appropriateness of a behavior is judged.
The extent to which a group is committed to staying together.
Occurs when a group's overriding concern is a unanimous decision rather than a critical analysis of alternatives.
A person who engages in leadership activities but whose right to do so has not been formally recognized by the organization or group.
Characterized by members' sharing information about themselves and getting to know one another.
Members discuss their feelings more openly and agree on group goals and individual roles in the group.
Members cooperate, help one another, and work toward accomplishing tasks.
The group is mature; members work together and are flexible, adaptive, and self-correcting.
Performance improvements that occur because people work together rather than independently.
Performance decrements that occur when a team performs worse than the individual members would have if they had worked alone.
Confidence that other people will honor their commitments, especially when it is difficult to monitor or observe the other people's behavior.
Happens when people are motivated to look good to others and want to maintain a positive self-image.
Define the behaviors and tasks each team member is expected to perform because of the position they hold.
The transmission of information from one person to another to create a shared understanding and feeling.
Converting a thought, idea, or fact into a message composed of symbols, pictures, or words.
The encoded information.
The medium used to send the message.
Translating the message back into something that can be understood by the receiver.
A check on the success of the communication.
Anything that blocks, distorts, or changes in any way the message the sender intended to communicate.
Communications that are not spoken or written but that have meaning to others.
A body movement such as a gesture or expression that conveys information to others.
The emphasis given to spoken words and phrases.
When we selectively interpret what we see based on our interests, expectations, experience, and attitudes rather than on how things really are.
How we reduce the amount of information being received to a manageable amount.
Becoming actively involved in the process of listening to what others are saying and clarifying messages' meaning.
The exchange of information among two or more individuals or groups in an organization that creates a common basis of understanding and feeling.
The set of relationships among people connected through friendship, family, work, or other ties.
Both a process and a property.
Leadership (as process)
Involves the use of noncoercive influence.
Leadership (as property)
The set of characteristics attributed to someone who is perceived to use influence successfully.
The ability to affect the perceptions, beliefs, attitudes, motivation, and/or behaviors of others.
Attempted to identify stable and enduring character traits that differentiated effective leaders from nonleaders.
Tried to identify behaviors that differentiated effective leaders from nonleaders.
Michigan leadership studies
Defined job-centered and employee-centered leadership as opposite ends of a single leadership dimension.
Job-centered leader behavior
Involves paying close attention to the work of subordinates, explaining work procedures, and demonstrating a strong interest in performance.
Employee-centered leader behavior
Involves attempting to build effective work groups with high performance goals.
Ohio State leadership studies
Defined leader consideration and initiating-structure behaviors as independent dimensions of leadership.
Involves being concerned with subordinates' feelings and respecting subordinates' ideas.
Involves clearly defining the leader-subordinate roles so that subordinates know what is expected of them.
LPC theory of leadership
Suggests that a leader's effectiveness depends on the situation.
Leader-member exchange model (LMX)
Stresses the importance of variable relationships between supervisors and each of their subordinates.
Often receives special duties requiring more responsibility and autonomy; they may also receive special privileges, such as more discretion about work schedules.
Receive less of the supervisor's time and attention and are likely to be assigned the more mundane tasks the group must perform and not be "in the loop" when information is being shared.
Hersey and Blanchard model
Based on the premise that appropriate leader behavior depends on the "readiness" of the leader's followers (i.e., the subordinate's degree of motivation, competence, experience, and interest in accepting responsibility).
The set of abilities that allows the leader to recognize the need for change, to create a vision to guide that change, and to execute the change effectively.
Leadership focused on routine, regimented activities.
A form of interpersonal attraction that inspires support and acceptance.
A type of influence based on the leader's personal charisma.
A person's or group's potential to influence another person's or group's behavior.
Based on one's position in the organization.
A position power based on a person's holding of the managerial position rather than anything the manager is or does as a person.
A position power that involves the use of rewards to influence and motivate followers.
A position power based on fear or a desire to avoid punishment.
Based on the person's individual characteristics, stays with a person regardless of his or her job or organization.
A personal power based on an individual's knowledge or expertise.
Power derived from control over information.
A personal power based on a manager's charisma or attractiveness to others.
Power due to the ability to use logic and facts to persuade.
Abuse of power
Using any type of power to demean, exploit, or take advantage of another or influencing someone to do something the person later regrets.
Sharing power with employees and giving them the authority to make and implement at least some decisions.
How people translate their power to affect the behavior of others.
Social influence attempts directed at those who can provide rewards that will help promote or protect the self-interests of the actor.
The process of portraying a desired image or attitude to control the impression others form of us.
A system of shared values, norms, and assumptions that guide members' attitudes and behaviors.
The physical manifestation of the culture including open offices, awards, ceremonies, and formal lists of values.
Espoused values and norms
The preferred values and norms explicitly stated by the organization.
Enacted values and norms
Values and norms that employees exhibit based on their observations of what actually goes on in the organization.
Those organizational values that have become so taken for granted over time that they become the core of the company's culture.
Culture of inclusion
The extent to which majority members value efforts to increase minority representation, and whether the qualifications and abilities of minority members are questioned.
The process through which individuals become social beings.
The process through which employees learn about the firm's culture and pass their knowledge and understanding on to others.
The process by which people become aware of the need for change.
The process of making new behaviors relatively permanent and resistant to further change.
A person responsible for managing a change effort.
Occurs because numerous organizational systems are in place to ensure that employees and systems behave as expected to maintain stability.
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