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82 terms

Psyc Final

STUDY
PLAY
psychoanalytic theory
explains personality focusing on early childhood, and unconscious motives
conscious
aware of at a particular point and time
preconscious
just beneath surface of awareness. easily retrieved
unconscious
difficult to retrieve. well below surface.
ego
decision making compononent.
reality principle
reality principle
seeks to delay gratifications of the ids urges until appropriate times
id
raw biological sources
driven by the pleasure principle
pleasure principle
demands immediate gratification of its urges
superego
moral component of personality
driven by moral imperatives
defense mechanism
unconscious reactions that protect a person from guilt
rationalization
creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behaviors
"everyone does it"
reaction formation
acting opposite of ones true feelings
-making fun of a gay person to hide that you're gay
projection
attributing ones owns thoughts or feelings to another person.
-if you're sexually attracted to someone else, you might claim that the other person is sexually attracted to you
displacement
diverting feelings of anger from an original source to another target.
-if your boss makes you mad, you come home and kick the dog and yell at your wife
regression
aversion to immature patterns of behavior.
-when anxious about self worth, some adults childishly brag and boast
repression
keeping depressing thoughts imprisoned in the unconscious
-people tend to repress conflicts or memories
denial
when people consciously refuse to face up to unpleasant realities
-refuse that your wife is cheating on you
phsycosexual development
basic foundations of an individuals personality is determined by age 5
oral stage
0-1
mouth
feeding experiences crucial to subsequent development
anal stage
2-3
anus
toilet training crucial to subsequent development
phallic stage
4-5
genitals
oedipal complex
oedipal complex
childrens feeling of want for opposite sex parent and hostility towards same sex parent
latency stage
6-12
no body part of focus
sexuality suppressed
social skills developed
genital stage
puberty-onward
genitals
sexual energy channeled towards opposite sex rather than yourself
behaviorism
psychology should only study behavior that can be experimented
bf skinner
behaviorist
dumb to look at what goes on inside mind
should look at observable behavior, how outside worlds shapes personality
personality
collection of response tendencies
operant conditioning
form of learning in which voluntary responses learn to be controlled by their consequences
negative reinforcement
removal of unpleasant stimulus
positive reinforcement
response strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus
extinction
gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency
punishment
response weakens or suppresses the tendency to make that response
bandura
observational learning
roger
humanism
person centered theory
client centered theory
humanism
emphasizes unique qualities of humans. (freedom, rational nature, potential for growth)
phenomenological approach
subjective view is more important than reality
maslow
hierarchy of needs
"growth needs"-need for self actualization
biological theories
physique to personality
shelden
endomorphy
persons body being fat round soft
sociable, relaxed, even tempered, affectionate
mesomorphy
strong muscular hard body type
energetic, competitive, aggressive, bold
ectomorphy
skinny frail body type
inhibited, apprehensive, intellectual, self conscious
eysenck
extraversion
extraversion
personality trait characterized by interest in the external world of people and things
sociability
anxiety disorders
marked by apprehension and anxiety
generalized anxiety disorder
high anxiety not tied to a specific threat
phobic disorder
persistent rational fear of something that presents no realistic fear
panic disorder
recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety.
leads to agoraphobia
agoraphobia
fear of being in public places
obsessive compulsive disorder
uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted obsessions
consistency
to behave in a cheerful, hopeful, enthusiastic way.
looking at bright side of things
distinctiveness
why everyone reacts differently to certain situations
neuroticism
negative
worried, insecure, self pitying
extraversion
positive
sociable, fun loving, affectionate
openness to experience
imaginative
preference for variety
independent
agreeableness
softhearted, trusting, helpful
conscientiousness
constraint
well organized, careful, self disciplined
five factor model
neuroticism
extraversion
openness to experience
agreeableness
conscienctiousness
unipolar mood disorder
aka depressive disorders
experience emotional extremes at one end of the mood contiuum.
troubled by episodes of depression
bipolar mood disorders
experience emotional extremes at both ends of the mood contiuum.
depression and mania
manic
opposite of depressive
attributions
inferences people draw about the causes of events and behavior
learned helplessness model
seligman
internal, stable, global attributions are prone to depression
rumination
amplifies depression
paranoid schizophrenia
delusions of persecution and grandeur
catatonic schizophrenia
immobility, frenzied motor activity
disorganized schizophrenia
deterioration of adaptive behavior, frequent incoherence, complete social withdrawal
undifferentiated schizophrenia
diagnosis of schizophrenia but cannot be placed into the other three categories
anxious-fearful cluster
avoidant, dependent, obsessive compulsive
dramatic-impulsive cluster
histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial
odd-eccentric cluster
schizo, schizotypal, paranoid
etiology
genetic predisopostions
dissociative amnesia
sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is to extensive to forget
dissociative fugue
lose memory of entire life along with personal identity
Somatization Disorder
Marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin
Hypochondriasis
Excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses.
Conversion Disorder
Characterized by a significant loss of physical function with no apparent organic basis
internal attributions
personal trains, feelings, abilities
external attributions
environmental factors
harold kelley
covariation model
covariation model
consistency, distinctiveness, consensus
internal attribution
high consistency, low distinctiveness, low consensus
external attribution
low consistency OR high consistency, high distinctiveness, high consensus