Upgrade to remove ads
Emt ch 16 cardiovascular emergencies
Get Quizlet's official NREMT - 1 term, 1 practice question, 1 full practice test
Terms in this set (106)
Acute coronary syndrome
A term used to describe a group of symptoms caused by myocardial ischemia; includes angina and myocardial infarction.
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
A heart attack; death of heart muscle following obstruction of blood flow to it. Acute in this context means "new" or "happening right now."
Transient (short-lived) chest discomfort cause by partial or temporary blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle.
The front surface of the body; the side facing you in the standard anatomic position.
The main artery, which receives blood from the left ventricle and delivers it to all the other arteries that carry blood to the tissues of the body.
A weakness in the wall of the aorta that makes it susceptible.
The one-way valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta and keeps blood from flowing back into the left ventricle after the left ventricle ejects its blood into the aorta; one of four valves.
An irregular or abnormal heart rhythm.
The complete absence of heart electrical activity.
A disorder in which cholesterol and calcium build up inside the walls of blood vessels, eventually leading to partial or complete blockage of blood flow.
One of two (right and left) upper chambers of the heart.
The ability of cardiac muscle cells to contract without stimulation from the nervous system.
Autonomic nervous system
The part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary activities of the body such as the heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion of food.
A slow heart rate, less than 60 beats/min.
A state in which the heart fails to generate effective and detectable blood flow; pulses are not palpable.
A state in which not enough oxygen is delivered to the tissues of the body, caused by low output of blood from the heart.
A measure of the volume of blood circulated by the heart in 1 minute, calculated by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate.
Congestive heart failure (CHF)
A disorder in which the heart loses part of its ability to effectively pump blood, usually as a result of damage to the heart muscle and usually resulting in a backup of fluid into the lungs.
The blood vessels that carry blood and nutrients to the heart muscle.
To shock a fibrillating (chaotically beating) heart with specialized electrical current in an attempt to restore a normal, rhythmic beat.
Swelling in the part of the body closet to the ground, caused by collection of fluid in the tissues; a possible sign of congestive heart failure.
A condition in which the inner layers of an artery, such as the aorta, become separated, allowing blood (at high pressures) to flow between the layers.
An emergency situation created by excessively high blood pressure, which can lead to serious complications such as stroke or aneurysm.
Death of a body tissue, usually caused by interruption of its blood supply.
The part of the body or any body part nearer to the feet.
A lack of oxygen that deprives tissues of necessary nutrients, resulting from partial or complete blockage of blood flow;.
The inside diameter of an artery or other hollow structure.
The heart muscle.
A blockage, usually of a tubular structure such as a blood vessel.
Parasympathetic nervous system
The part of the autonomic nervous system that controls vegetative functions such as digestion of food and relaxation.
The flow of blood through body tissues and vessels.
The back surface of the body.
The volume of blood ejected with each ventricular contraction.
The part of the body or any body part nearer to the head.
Sympathetic nervous system
The part of the autonomic nervous system that controls active functions such as responding to fear (fight-or-flight).
A fainting spell or transient loss of consciousness.
A rapid heart rate, more than 100 beats/min.
A blood clot that has formed within a blood vessel and is floating with in the bloodstream.
One of two (right and left) lower chambers of the heart.
Disorganized, ineffective twitching of the ventricles, resulting in no blood flow and a state of cardiac arrest.
A rapid heart rhythm in which the electrical impulse begins in the ventricle (instead of the atrium), which may result in inadequate blood flow and eventually deteriorate into cardiac arrest.
Upper chambers of the heart.
Blood vessels that supply blood to the myocardium.
Electrical impulses slow here to allow blood to move from the atria to the ventricles.
Electrical impulses begin here.
Carry oxygen-poor blood back to the heart.
Lower chambers of the heart.
Body's main artery.
Calcium and cholesterol buildup inside blood vessels.
Abnormal heart rhythm.
Lack of oxygen.
Rapid heart rhythm, greater than 100 beats/min.
Absence of heart electrical activity.
Unusually slow heart rhythm, less than 60 beats/min.
Blood clot floating through blood vessels until it reaches a narrow area and blocks blood flow.
____________ allows a cardiac muscle cell to contrast spontaneously without a stimulus from a nerve source.
The aorta receives its blood supply from the:
Blood enters the right atrium form the body through the:
The only vein(s) in the body that carry oxygenated blood is/are the:
Normal electric impulses originate in the sinus node, just above the:
Dilation of the coronary arteries ________ blood flow.
The ___________ are tiny blood vessels that are approximately one cell think.
______________ carry oxygen to the body's tissues and then remove carbon dioxide.
Red blood cells.
______________ is the maximum pressure exerted by the left ventricle as it contracts.
Systolic blood pressure.
Atherosclerosis can lead to a complete _________ of a coronary artery.
The lumen of an artery may be partially or completely blocked by the blood-clotting system due to a _________ that exposes the inside of the atherosclerotic wall.
Tissues downstream from a blood clot will suffer from lack of oxygen. If blood flow is resumed in a short time, the _________ tissues will recover.
Risk factors for myocardial infarction include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. male gender
B. high blood pressure
D. increased activity level
Increased activity level.
When, for a brief period of time, heart tissues do not get enough oxygen, the pain is called:
Angina pain may be felt in the:
The underlying cause of a dissecting aortic aneurysm is:
Because the oxygen supply to the heart is diminished with angina, the ____________ can become compromised, putting the person at risk for significant cardiac rhythm problems.
About _____ minutes after blood flow is cut off, some heart muscle cells begin to die.
An acute myocardial infarction is more likely to occur in the larger, think-walled left ventricle, which needs more ________ than the right ventricle.
Blood and oxygen.
Which of the following statements regarding CHF is FALSE?
A. stridor is a common lung sound heard on exam
B. it can be caused by diseased heart valves
C. it can be treated with nitroglycerin
D. ankle edema is a common finding
Stridor is a common lung sound heard on exam.
Cardiogenic shock can occur within 24 hours of a(n):
Acute myocardial infarction.
Sudden death is usually the result of _________, in which the heart fails to generate an effective blood flow.
Disorganized, ineffective quivering of the ventricles is known as:
Which of the following is NOT a cause of congestive heart failure?
A. chronic hypotension
B. heart valve damage
C. a myocardial infarction
D. longstanding high blood pressure
Signs and symptoms of shock include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. elevated heart rate
B. pale, clammy skin
C. air hunger
D. elevated blood pressure
Elevated blood pressure.
Which of the following changes in heart function occur in patients with CHF?
A. a decrease in heart rate
B. enlargement of the left ventricle
C. enlargement of the right ventricle
D. a decrease in blood pressure
Enlargement of the left ventricle.
Physical findings of AMI include skin that is _______ because of poor cardiac output and the loss of perfusion.
All patient assessments begin by determining whether the patient:
To assess chest pain, use the mnemonic:
When using the mnemonic OPQRST, the "P" stands for:
In addition to angina and myocardial infarction, nitroglycerin can be used to treat:
Congestive heart failure.
When administering nitroglycerin to a patient, you should make sure the patient has not taken any medications for __________ in the last 24 hours.
In general, a maximum of _____ dose(s) of nitroglycerin is/are given for any one episode of chest pain.
_____________ are inserted when the electrical-control system of the heart is so damaged that it cannot function properly.
When the battery wears out in a pacemaker, the patient may experience:
The computer inside the AED is specifically programmed to recognize rhythms that require defibrillation to correct, most commonly:
The AED should be applied only to unresponsive patients with no:
_____________ usually refers to a state of cardiac arrest despite an organized electrical complex.
Pulseless electrical activity.
The links in the chain of survival include all of the following EXCEPT:
A. early access and CPR
B. early ACLS
C. early administration of nitroglycerin
D. early defibrillation
Early administration of nitroglycerin.
Defibrillation works best if it takes place within ____ minutes of the onset of cardiac arrest.
The left ventricle has the thickest walls because it:
pumps blood into the aorta and systemic circulation.
The electrical impulse generated by the heart originates in the:
Sinoatrial (SA) node.
An acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurs when:
Myocardial tissue dies secondary to an absence of oxygen.
Which of the following is a major difference between angina pectoris and AMI?
A. nitroglycerin has no effect on angina pectoris
B. anginal pain typically subsides with rest
C. AMI is caused by myocardial ischemia
D. pain from an AMI subsides within 30 minutes
Anginal pain typically subsides with rest.
In contrast to AMI, a dissecting aortic aneurysm:
Often presents with pain that is maximal from the onset.
Common side effects of nitroglycerin include all of the following, EXCEPT:
B. severe headache
Which of the following represents the MOST appropriate method of assisting a patient with his or her prescribed nitroglycerin tablet or spray?
A. encourage the patient to chew the tablet to increase its effectiveness
B. administer the medication sublingually and allow it to dissolve or absorb
C. place the medication under the tongue and have the patient swallow it
D. wait 15 minutes and reassess the blood pressure prior to administering another dose.
Administer the medication sublingually and allow it to dissolve or absorb.
Prior to defibrillating a patient with an AED, it is MOST important that you:
Ensure that no one is touching the patient.
Your EMS team is performing CPR on a 60-year-old male in cardiac arrest. You connect the AED, push the analyze button, and receive a "no shock advised" message. You should:
Perform CPR for 2 minutes and reassess.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AAOS Emergency Care and Transportation of the Sick…
Chapter 17 Neurological Emergencies
EMT Chapter 26 - Soft Tissue Injuries
Chapter 1 Emergency Care and Transportation of the…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
CHAPTER 14 CARDIOVASCULAR EMERGENCIES
Chapter 16 Cardiovascular Emergencies
CH 16 ( voc untimed timed
EMT-B: Ch 14
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
EMT Ch 27 Face and Neck injuries
EMT ch 26 Soft-Tissue Injuries
EMT Ch 25 Bleeding
EMT Ch 24 Trauma Overview
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Marriage and Family FINAL
coach pollock mid-term
RT 134 Quizzes